Interactions of nitric oxide (NO) with various cobalamin species have been examined, apparently for the first time, with both absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Only slight shifts in the absorption spectrum of hydroxocobalamin, B12a [Cb(III)], were produced by NO, but dramatic changes in the spectrum of B12r [Cb(III)] were found on addition of NO. The addition of NO shifted the spectrum of Cb(II) to one very similar to that of Cb(III), indicating the oxidation of Cb(II). The addition of NO to Cb(III) resulted in a novel, weak and previously undescribed electron paramagnetic resonance signal. Although it has not been fully characterized, this appears to represent a reversible complex in which NO is liganded to the Cb(III). When NO was added to Cb(II), its strong electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum was replaced by that of this novel species, consistent with oxidation of Cb(II) by NO and then binding of additional NO by the resulting Cb(III). Porcine, aortic endothelial cells were able to partially reduce Cb(III), and release to the supernatant a previously characterized superoxide cobalt(III) complex, but some Cb(II) remained with the cell fraction. These reactions of Cb species could play a role in altering intracellular and intratissue levels of NO.