Comparative analysis of CRF/urocortin receptor agonist and antagonist peptides tested in rodent behavioral models

Receptor Agonists

Receptor Antagonists
Behavioral Effects
Behavioral Effects
Food intake
    CRF, sauvagine Sauvagine produced larger and longer lasting suppression of noctural feeding than CRF (Gosnell et al., 1983) α-Helical-CRF9-41, d-Phe-CRF12-41, antisauvagine-30, astressin All peptides attenuate CRF-induced anorexia (Jones et al., 1999; Pelleymounter et al., 2000)
    CRF, urocortin 1, urotensin Urocortin 1 and urotensin are more potent than CRF in reducing deprivation-induced feeding (Spina et al., 1996) α-Helical-CRF9-41 Reversal of stress-induced anorexia (Hotta et al., 1999)
    Urocortin 2 Decreased food intake (Inoue et al., 2003)
Exploratory models of anxiety
    CRF, sauvagine, urotensin Sauvagine more potent than CRF or urotensin in producing anxiogenic-like behavior (Britton et al., 1984) α-Helical-CRF9-41, d-Phe-CRF12-41 All peptides attenuate stress-induced emotionality (Spina et al., 2000)
    CRF, urocortin 1, urotensin Urocortin 1 and urotensin less effective than CRF in producing anxiogenic-like behavior (Spina et al., 1996) Antisauvagine-30 Anxiolytic-like effect in the absence of stressor exposure (Takahashi et al., 2001)
    CRF, urocortin 1 CRF and urocortin 1 stimulate anxiogenic-like behavior, but effects are time-dependent (Moreau et al., 1997; Spina et al., 2002) α-Helical-CRF9-41 Attenuates CRF-induced anxiogenic-like behavior (Britton et al., 1986)
    Urocortin 3 Anxiolytic-like effect (Valdez et al., 2003a)
Acoustic startle reflex
    CRF, urocortin 1
Both peptides increased the startle response (Jones et al., 1998)
α-Helical-CRF9-41, antisauvagine-30
Both peptides attenuate CRF-induced startle (Risbrough et al., 2003)