TABLE 1

Microarray analysis of differentially expressed genes in SUL-treated rats


Product

GenBank

Normalized ± S.E.
2 h
4 h
12 h
24 h
48 h
Stress response proteins
   Glutathione S-transferase A3 subunit AF111160 0.88 ± 0.36 1.16 ± 0.19 2.48 ± 0.12* 2.14 ± 0.46 2.88 ± 0.22*
   Glutathione S-transferase, α type (Yc?) (Gsta2) NM_017013 1.04 ± 0.08 0.96 ± 0.36 1.59 ± 0.20 1.43 ± 0.44 2.65 ± 0.20*
   Stress 70 protein chaperone, microsome-associated, 60-kDa human homolog NM_019271 0.88 ± 0.02* 0.48 ± 0.12 0.85 ± 0.11 0.82 ± 0.04 0.61 ± 0.08
   Aflatoxin B1 aldehyde reductase NM_013215 1.04 ± 0.16 1.31 ± 0.19 7.08 ± 1.03* 3.14 ± 0.17* 4.69 ± 0.49*
   Aldehyde oxidase (female form) NM_019363 1.05 ± 0.13 1.14 ± 0.12 2.28 ± 0.12* 2.51 ± 0.25* 2.14 ± 0.26*
   UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, phenobarbital-inducible form M13506 1.19 ± 0.27 1.58 ± 0.30 2.78 ± 0.22* 2.72 ± 0.27* 2.26 ± 0.10*
   UDP-glucuronosyltransferase U06274 1.88 ± 0.18* 2.05 ± 0.13* 2.32 ± 0.08* 1.78 ± 0.12* 2.74 ± 0.21*
   UDP-glucuronosyltransferase {isoenzyme} [Gunn rats, liver, 915 nt] S70366 1.34 ± 0.31 1.31 ± 0.23 1.45 ± 0.40 1.86 ± 0.40 3.22 ± 0.10*
Homeostasis
   Hemiferrin M60388 1.77 ± 0.14* 2.66 ± 0.50* 2.09 ± 0.41 2.40 ± 0.23* 1.65 ± 0.36
   Calcium-binding protein Z36277 1.85 ± 0.09* 1.63 ± 0.06* 1.76 ± 0.10* 1.91 ± 0.30 2.09 ± 0.04*
   Metallothionein J00750 19.57 ± 5.61* 12.80 ± 1.42* 14.03 ± 1.22* 19.56 ± 6.99* 18.15 ± 2.31*
   Metallothionein-2 and metallothionein-1 genes M11794 37.13 ± 15.25* 31.89 ± 1.92* 34.78 ± 1.59* 43.86 ± 9.85* 34.83 ± 5.18*
   TIP120 D87671 1.60 ± 0.21 1.98 ± 0.36 2.05 ± 0.09* 1.98 ± 0.48 2.32 ± 0.16*
   TIP120-family protein TIP120B, short form AB029342 6.05 ± 0.51* 11.74 ± 3.27* 4.68 ± 0.84* 6.41 ± 0.79* 5.47 ± 0.69*
Liver-specific genes and enzymes
   Serine protease inhibitor, kanzal type1/trypsin inhibitor-like protein, pancreatic NM_012674 3.83 ± 0.59* 5.55 ± 0.87* 2.19 ± 0.34* 2.51 ± 0.06* 2.56 ± 0.41*
   Aldehyde dehydrogenase class 3 J03637 0.91 ± 0.05 1.43 ± 0.22 2.95 ± 0.32* 1.30 ± 0.43 2.83 ± 0.27*
   Rat liver carboxylesterase M20629 1.09 ± 0.21 1.99 ± 0.40 2.55 ± 0.48* 2.59 ± 0.25* 2.44 ± 0.28*
   Cytochrome P450 (cholesterol hydroxylase 7α) NM_012942 0.56 ± 0.08* 0.75 ± 0.09 0.88 ± 0.03 1.55 ± 0.07* 2.08 ± 0.17*
   Sulfite oxidase L05084 2.06 ± 0.36* 2.10 ± 0.28* 2.27 ± 0.54 1.64 ± 0.53 2.02 ± 0.37
   V1a arginine vasopressin receptor Z11690 1.10 ± 0.10 0.42 ± 0.07* 0.36 ± 0.05* 1.28 ± 0.21 0.51 ± 0.07*
   CYP8B mRNA for sterol 12α-hydroxylase P450 AB009686 1.63 ± 0.35 1.11 ± 0.05 0.45 ± 0.10 2.73 ± 0.42* 3.36 ± 0.38*
   l-Kynurenine hydrolase U68168 1.21 ± 0.13 0.66 ± 0.03* 0.21 ± 0.02* 1.06 ± 0.08 0.47 ± 0.06*
   Carboxylesterase precursor AB010632 1.78 ± 0.17* 2.10 ± 0.29* 1.91 ± 0.06* 1.66 ± 0.15* 2.67 ± 0.54*
   Epoxide hydrolase X65083 1.60 ± 0.17* 1.46 ± 0.07* 0.85 ± 0.25 2.23 ± 0.41* 1.82 ± 0.07*
   Dopa/tyrosine sulfotransferase U38419 2.39 ± 0.05* 1.79 ± 0.08* 1.83 ± 0.07* 1.76 ± 0.27 1.92 ± 0.26*
   Xanthine dehydrogenase NM_017154 0.96 ± 0.16 2.83 ± 1.53 1.72 ± 0.23 0.84 ± 0.11 1.58 ± 0.63
   Pyruvate kinase, liver, and RBC NM_012624 0.07 ± 0.02* 0.07 ± 0.01* 0.07 ± 0.01* 0.08 ± 0.01* 0.06*
   Betaine homocysteine methyltransferase AF038870 1.34 ± 0.02* 1.13 ± 0.17 0.39 ± 0.05* 0.50 ± 0.06* 0.79 ± 0.02*
   Cholesterol esterase L46791 1.91 ± 0.17* 1.72 ± 0.23 2.46 ± 0.24* 1.49 ± 0.34 2.06 ± 0.28*
   β-Alanine synthase M97662 0.94 ± 0.06 0.95 ± 0.07 1.05 ± 0.10 1.16 ± 0.28 2.36 ± 0.12*
   Bile acid CoA ligase AF242189 1.69 ± 0.12* 1.96 ± 0.29* 1.74 ± 0.13* 1.49 ± 0.15 2.40 ± 0.15*
   Spi-2.1 18S mRNA for serine protease inhibitor C-term. (contrapsin-related) X13149 1.16 ± 0.04* 0.96 ± 0.04 0.97 ± 0.10 1.02 ± 0.09 0.34 ± 0.13
   17-β Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 X91234 0.17 ± 0.03* 0.83 ± 0.22 0.35 ± 0.08* 0.22 ± 0.07* 0.62 ± 0.15
   SPI-3 serine protease inhibitor X16359 2.29 ± 0.30* 2.15 ± 0.15* 1.78 ± 0.09* 1.33 ± 0.20 1.71 ± 0.06*
   Alcohol dehydrogenase 3 NM_019286 0.89 ± 0.08 1.76 ± 0.60 2.83 ± 0.23* 1.19 ± 0.37 2.34 ± 0.82
   N-Heparan sulfate sulfotransferase M92042 0.55 ± 0.04* 0.65 ± 0.08 0.63 ± 0.05* 0.69 ± 0.05* 0.48 ± 0.03*
   Dopa decarboxylase (aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase) NM_012545 0.47 ± 0.12 0.28 ± 0.03* 0.37 ± 0.08* 0.58 ± 0.13 0.78 ± 0.16
   Gstt2 NM_012796 1.55 ± 0.09 1.28 ± 0.20 1.54 ± 0.17 1.49 ± 0.21 1.88 ± 0.14*
   Serine protease inhibitor 2 mRNA, clone λ Spi-2 M15916 0.84 ± 0.06 0.68 ± 0.01* 0.66 ± 0.05* 0.90 ± 0.21 0.43 ± 0.10
   Urate oxidase 2 M24396 1.78 ± 0.19* 2.21 ± 0.12* 2.03 ± 0.19* 1.01 ± 0.06 2.43 ± 0.20*
   Retinol dehydrogenase type II mRNA U33500 2.19 ± 0.25* 2.20 ± 0.32* 2.45 ± 0.24* 1.66 ± 0.25 1.02 ± 0.49
   Lysophospholipase II AB021645 2.53 ± 0.27* 2.29 ± 0.27* 2.43 ± 0.05* 2.28 ± 0.09* 2.25 ± 0.15*
   Dopa decarboxylase M64493 0.92 ± 0.10 0.42 ± 0.07* 0.65 ± 0.06* 0.62 ± 0.04* 0.44 ± 0.06*
   SPI-1 serine protease inhibitor X16357 0.68 ± 0.04* 0.64 ± 0.05* 0.49 ± 0.02* 0.66 ± 0.15 0.54 ± 0.05*
   Serine protease inhibitor (Spin2b) NM_012657 0.62 ± 0.02* 0.51 ± 0.00* 0.47 ± 0.01* 0.63 ± 0.13 0.50 ± 0.05*
   3-Methylcholanthrene-inducible truncated UDP-glucuronosyltransferase J05132 1.72 ± 0.25 2.07 ± 0.42 1.36 ± 0.26 2.41 ± 0.28* 3.31 ± 0.24*
   Pyruvate carboxylase NM_012744 0.70 ± 0.04* 0.45 ± 0.04* 0.37 ± 0.06* 0.44 ± 0.02* 0.39 ± 0.05*
Cytochrome P450
   Cytochrome P450, 2c29 NM_019184 0.65 ± 0.07 0.62 ± 0.10 0.70 ± 0.05* 0.37 ± 0.09 0.20 ± 0.05*
   Cytochrome P450, subfamily XVII NM_012753 2.45 ± 0.36* 2.16 ± 0.19* 1.97 ± 0.15* 2.06 ± 0.48 2.55 ± 0.20*
   Cytochrome P450, 2b19 J00719 2.79 ± 0.05* 2.81 ± 0.20* 2.88 ± 0.53* 3.28 ± 0.29* 3.15 ± 0.48*
   Cytochrome P450, subfamily IIIA, polypeptide 3 NM_013105 2.13 ± 0.19* 1.97 ± 0.16* 2.42 ± 0.21* 2.29 ± 0.14* 2.88 ± 0.24*
   Cytochrome P450 3A9 U46118 2.05 ± 0.06* 1.37 ± 0.21 2.21 ± 0.19* 2.78 ± 0.19* 1.96 ± 0.43
   Cytochrome P-450 M58041 2.21 ± 0.22* 2.22 ± 0.33* 2.93 ± 0.16* 1.13 ± 0.35 0.77 ± 0.08
   Cytochrome P450 1b1 NM_012940 1.99 ± 0.24* 2.24 ± 0.22* 2.49 ± 0.17* 2.18 ± 0.20* 2.14 ± 0.29*
   Cytochrome P450, 2b19 M34452 2.04 ± 0.27* 1.72 ± 0.24 2.13 ± 0.13* 1.54 ± 0.22 1.55 ± 0.16
   Cytochrome P-450b type b M26854 2.42 ± 0.18* 1.87 ± 0.12* 1.98 ± 0.03* 1.73 ± 0.07* 1.18 ± 0.10
   Cytochrome P450, 4b1 NM_016999 1.67 ± 0.10* 2.05 ± 0.10* 1.88 ± 0.12* 1.90 ± 0.23* 1.63 ± 0.26
   Cytochrome P450, 1a1 NM_012540 0.71 ± 0.08 0.45 ± 0.12 0.72 ± 0.03* 0.75 ± 0.07 0.56 ± 0.09
Cell cycle-related proteins
   τ-Protein kinase X73653 1.49 ± 0.05* 2.58 ± 0.18* 1.31 ± 0.17 1.34 ± 0.18 1.66 ± 0.36
   F52 D86220 1.22 ± 0.17 1.61 ± 0.20 1.25 ± 0.09 1.53 ± 0.21 2.16 ± 0.33*
   Protein tyrosine phosphatase U02553 0.44 ± 0.08* 0.42 ± 0.10 0.28 ± 0.06* 0.24 ± 0.05* 0.32 ± 0.08*
   Cyclin D3 NM_012766 1.03 ± 0.10 1.58 ± 0.21 2.15 ± 0.25* 1.36 ± 0.09* 1.35 ± 0.34
   Cyclin D1 D14014 0.24 ± 0.07* 0.20 ± 0.08 0.19 ± 0.03* 0.33 ± 0.11 0.18 ± 0.03*
   Cell cycle checkpoint protein kinase Bub1 U83666 1.16 ± 0.20 0.64 0.21 ± 0.32 0.85 ± 0.29 0.76 ± 0.22
Mitochondria proteins
   Cytochrome c oxidase subunit II NC_001665_6991.0.7674 0.56 ± 0.04* 0.48 ± 0.02* 0.47 ± 0.02* 0.60 ± 0.11 0.52 ± 0.03*
   Cytochrome c oxidase subunit III NC_001665_8584.0.9367 0.59 ± 0.02* 0.54 ± 0.02* 0.47 ± 0.01* 0.63 ± 0.09 0.52 ± 0.04*
   ATP synthase F0 subunit 8 NC_001665_7743.0.7946 0.54 ± 0.06* 0.46 ± 0.02* 0.45 ± 0.02* 0.55 ± 0.10 0.51 ± 0.03*
   NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4L NC_001665_9855.0.10151 0.54 ± 0.06* 0.46 ± 0.02* 0.45 ± 0.02* 0.55 ± 0.10 0.51 ± 0.03*
Transcription factors and DNA binding proteins
   Hepatocyte nuclear factor 3β NM_012743 1.17 ± 0.27 0.59 ± 0.09 0.45 ± 0.11 0.76 ± 0.07 0.68 ± 0.05*
   cAMP responsive-element modulator NM_013086 0.42 ± 0.02* 0.31 ± 0.03* 0.35 ± 0.04* 0.31 ± 0.05* 0.38 ± 0.03*
   Zinc finger transcription factor REST protein, type C 5′UTR AF037202 0.80 ± 0.08 2.24 ± 2.03 0.91 ± 0.09 1.09 ± 0.18 1.84 ± 1.16
   HNF-3/forkhead homolog-1 L13201 0.79 ± 0.12 0.74 ± 0.08 0.85 ± 0.13 0.80 ± 0.10 0.50 ± 0.12
   NFI-A1 D78017 0.82 ± 0.06 0.80 ± 0.09 0.62 ± 0.02* 0.45 ± 0.06* 0.63 ± 0.10
   NF1-X1 AB012235 0.63 ± 0.05* 0.47 ± 0.03* 0.34 ± 0.04* 0.45 ± 0.07* 0.38 ± 0.03*
Kinases
   Glucokinase M25807 1.00 ± 0.09 0.60 ± 0.15 0.53 ± 0.06* 0.75 ± 0.30 0.37 ± 0.06*
   Glucokinase regulatory protein NM_013120 0.92 ± 0.08 0.38 ± 0.02* 0.16 ± 0.02* 0.64 ± 0.21 0.37 ± 0.01*
   Ketohexokinase M86235 0.74 ± 0.04* 0.63 ± 0.13 0.63 ± 0.05* 0.72 ± 0.07 0.41 ± 0.05*
   Extracellular signal-related kinase 3 M64301 0.79 ± 0.14 0.46 ± 0.15 0.63 ± 0.07* 0.87 ± 0.12 0.54 ± 0.11
   Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 5 NM_017246 0.57 ± 0.04* 0.46 ± 0.14 0.72 ± 0.06 0.78 ± 0.06 0.80 ± 0.13
   Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase kinase L22294 0.48 ± 0.06* 0.51 ± 0.02* 0.52 ± 0.01* 0.47 ± 0.08* 0.55 ± 0.05*
   Protein kinase C delta-binding protein D85435 0.45 ± 0.02* 0.55 ± 0.09* 0.71 ± 0.08 0.74 ± 0.09 0.62 ± 0.03*
   Pyruvate kinase, liver and RBC NM_012624 0.07 ± 0.02* 0.07 ± 0.01* 0.07 ± 0.01* 0.08 ± 0.01* 0.06 ± 0.00*
   Type I serine-threonine kinase receptor S76466 0.86 ± 0.09 0.32 ± 0.18 0.91 ± 0.08 0.96 ± 0.17 0.61 ± 0.09
   Protein-tyrosine kinase (CSK) X58631 1.25 ± 0.21 1.29 ± 0.06* 1.56 ± 0.03* 1.37 ± 0.09* 2.09 ± 0.12*
Phosphatases
   Serine-threonine specific protein phosphatase, glycogen-binding (GL) subunit Y18208 0.46 ± 0.13 0.54 ± 0.06* 0.65 ± 0.06* 0.61 ± 0.20 0.46 ± 0.04*
   Glucose-6-phosphatase NM_013098 0.44 ± 0.11 0.27 ± 0.09* 0.49 ± 0.07* 1.00 ± 0.15 0.57 ± 0.18
   Protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPNE6) U73458 0.76 ± 0.14 0.46 ± 0.15 0.79 ± 0.12 0.61 ± 0.07* 0.65 ± 0.03*
   Tyrosine phosphatase L27843 2.63 ± 0.27* 2.50 ± 0.62 2.45 ± 0.19* 1.13 ± 0.06 1.02 ± 0.20
   Membrane-associated intestinal alkaline phosphatase X17611 1.01 ± 0.10 0.45 ± 0.28 0.63 ± 0.04* 0.71 ± 0.18 0.81 ± 0.14
   α-2u Globulin J00738 2.54 ± 0.20* 1.28 ± 0.31 1.75 ± 0.02* 0.69 ± 0.14 0.29 ± 0.11
   cdc25B D16237 0.65 ± 0.24 2.92 0.57 ± 0.08 1.25 ± 0.47 0.84 ± 0.19
   Inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase U26397 1.34 ± 0.06 2.01 ± 0.25* 1.92 ± 0.23 2.03 ± 0.29 2.14 ± 0.10*
   Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) 55-kDa regulatory subunit α M83298 0.70 ± 0.18 0.54 ± 0.11 0.66 ± 0.13 0.83 ± 0.10 0.54 ± 0.10
   Phosphodiesterase I/nucleotide pyrophosphatase (pdnpno gene) AJ250374 0.60 ± 0.06* 0.48 ± 0.04* 0.47 ± 0.07* 0.87 ± 0.07 0.81 ± 0.10
Cytokines
   CD40 ligand AF116582 1.00 ± 0.05 0.83 ± 0.07 0.95 ± 0.07 0.60 ± 0.05* 0.36 ± 0.04*
   MEGF6 AB011532 0.65 ± 0.07* 0.44 ± 0.08* 0.81 ± 0.04* 0.79 ± 0.02* 0.55 ± 0.09
   Insulin (Ins1) NM_019129 0.82 ± 0.08 2.35 ± 2.13 0.75 ± 0.08 0.80 ± 0.15 1.16 ± 0.35
   Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (Igfbp2) NM_013122 2.37 ± 0.51* 2.98 ± 0.92 1.76 ± 0.57 2.12 ± 0.83 4.18 ± 0.45*
   Neurotrophin-3 (HDNF/NT-3) M34643 0.78 ± 0.06 0.49 ± 0.10 0.89 ± 0.08 0.76 ± 0.06 0.66 ± 0.16
   Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase α1 subunit (PAF-AH α1) AF016047 2.27 ± 0.76 4.33 ± 0.44* 2.03 ± 0.57 1.34 ± 0.39 3.11 ± 1.30
   Platelet cell surface glycoprotein X76489 1.19 ± 0.12 2.17 ± 0.14* 1.32 ± 0.27 1.06 ± 0.10 1.26 ± 0.14
Jak/STAT kinase cascade
   Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 NM_012747 2.77 ± 0.32* 3.50 ± 0.62* 1.75 ± 0.31 0.88 ± 0.10 1.41 ± 0.20
   Prostatic steroid binding protein (subunit C2) V01256 1.01 ± 0.09 2.02 ± 0.38 1.44 ± 0.26 0.95 ± 0.18 1.18 ± 0.10
   Cystathionine β synthase (Cβs) NM_012522 1.73 ± 0.20* 2.11 ± 0.03* 2.12 ± 0.21* 1.64 ± 0.16* 2.15 ± 0.35*
   Testostrone-repressed prostate message 2 (Trpm2) NM_012679 1.71 ± 0.08* 1.99 ± 0.02* 1.58 ± 0.09* 1.48 ± 0.16 2.03 ± 0.33*
   Cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein AF065161 1.22 ± 0.18 0.62 ± 0.18 0.35 ± 0.03* 0.46 ± 0.13 0.66 ± 0.12
   Suppressor of cytokine signaling-2 AF075382 2.65 ± 1.01 1.21 ± 0.13 1.28 ± 0.22 1.81 ± 0.12* 1.56 ± 0.08*
   Stathmin-like-protein splice variant RB3″ AF026530 0.38 ± 0.12 0.38 ± 0.04 0.65 ± 0.15 0.62 ± 0.10 0.38 ± 0.08*
   Cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein AF065161 1.22 ± 0.18 0.62 ± 0.18 0.35 ± 0.03* 0.46 ± 0.13 0.66 ± 0.12
   Suppressor of cytokine signaling-2
AF075382
2.65 ± 1.01
1.21 ± 0.13
1.28 ± 0.22
1.81 ± 0.12*
1.56 ± 0.08*
  • nt, nucleotide; RBC, red blood cells.

  • * p < 0.05