Key elements for reviewing a manuscript and writing a manuscript review

SummaryBegin with a concise summary of the manuscript, highlighting the rationale behind the study and main findings.
Overall strengthsOutline the manuscript's major strengths, including its potential impact on the field, unique contributions and how the research advances scientific understanding or application.
Major concernsList significant issues that need addressing, such as:
  • Abstract lacking elements such as a brief background, research problem, results, conclusions, and applications

  • Introduction lacking background on the topic, research problem, rationale, and objective for conducting the study

  • Unclear or unjustified aims and hypotheses

  • Lack of clear, reproducible methods or study design details

  • Results not clearly presented or lacking appropriate controls and statistical analysis

  • Insufficient evidence supporting the model or interpretation of results

  • Discussion lacking multiple viewpoints, study limitations, compare or contrast with existing literature, contributions to current knowledge, and future directions or perspectives

  • Conclusions not well supported by data or failing to address study aims

  • Lack of substantial contributions to scientific knowledge gap

Minor concernsDetail less critical but still relevant concerns, including:
  • Clarity and relevance of the title and running title

  • Inadequate details on subject selection and statistics for studies involving animal/human subjects

  • Adequacy and appropriateness of references

  • Manuscript structure or language issues affecting clarity

  • Whether acronyms are explained at first use

  • Self-explanatory figure and table legends and high-resolution figures

  • Adherence to submission guidelines and overall writing quality

Comments to the EditorA concise summary of your evaluation, highlighting key concerns or standout aspects of the manuscript, including its quality, relevance to the journal’s scope, and/or any ethical issues