TABLE 1

lncRNAs causative for CIN

NameTargetMechanismCorrelation to CINReferences
TERRATerc
TERT
Ku70/80
TRF1/2
Telomere
Transcribed from telomeres; regulate telomere length via inhibition of telomerase (Terc, TERT), exonuclease degradation of chromosome ends (Ku70/80-exonuclease 1), formation of telomeric heterochromatin (TRF2-ORC1) and protection of chromosome ends from DNA damage (DNA:RNA hybrids)Negative/positiveSchoeftner and Blasco (2008), Deng et al. (2009), Redon et al. (2010), Aguilera and García-Muse (2012), Pfeiffer and Lingner (2012), Sagie et al. (2017), Mei et al. (2021)
cenRNACENP-A
HJURP
CENP-C
INCENP
Aurora B
Transcribed from centrosomal DNA; Assists kinetochore assembly via interaction with various centromere-associated proteins and the chromosome passenger complexPositiveMurata-Hori and Wang (2002), Wong et al. (2007), Portella et al. (2011), Kato et al. (2013), Ideue et al. (2014), Quénet and Dalal (2014), McNulty et al. (2017)
Enhancer RNAsAIDIn B cells, AID off-targeting to regions other than the immunoglobulin loci has been related to convergent transcription of enhancer RNAs. Convergent transcription leads to formation of R loops, which impose genomic fragility if not resolved by the RNA exosome, leading to translocations between proto-oncogenes and the potent immunoglobulin enhancers.PositiveMeng et al. (2014), Qian et al. (2014), Pefanis et al. (2015)
PCAT2CENP-A, HIRA, DAXXTranscribed from fragile 8q24 locus; causes local, ectopic recruitment of CENP-A and other centromere-associated proteins resulting in genome fragilityPositiveArunkumar et al. (2022)
Ginir and GinirasCep112
Brca1
Disruption of the Cep112-Brca1 interaction and downregulation of Cep112 and Brca1 causes centromere defects, chromosome missegregation and increased occurrence of DNA double strand breaks.PositivePanda et al. (2018)
GUARDINmiR-23a
BRCA1-BARD1
Maintains TFR2 (shelterin complex component) expression via sponging of miR-23a to prevent telomere dysfunction.
Acts as an RNA scaffold for BRCA1-BARD1, forming a ribonucleoprotein complex that influences double strand break repair.
NegativeHu et al. (2018)
CCAT2BOP1
AURKB
Positively regulates BOP1 expression which in turn upregulates phosphorylation and activation of AURKB. Possibly mediates BOP1-AURKB interaction by scaffolding. Increased pAURKB disrupts chromosome-microtubule attachments and chromosome missegregation.PositiveLing et al. (2013), Chen et al. (2020)
NORADPUMILIO (PUM1/PUM2)
SAM68
Mediates phase-separation of PUM1 and PUM2 proteins, which bind to NORAD via PUMILIO response elements and/or via SAM68. This in turn inhibits the repressive effect of PUMILIO proteins on mRNA targets involved in DNA damage repair and mitosis regulation.NegativeLee et al. (2016), Tichon et al. (2018), Elguindy and Mendell (2021)
  • BARD1, BRCA1-associated RING domain 1; DAXX, death domain–associated protein; HIRA, histone cell cycle regulator; HJURP, Holliday junction recognition protein; INCENP, inner centromere protein; ORC1, origin recognition complex subunit 1; PUM1/PUM2, PUMILIO homolog 1/PUMILIO homolog 2; TERT, telomerase reverse transcriptase.