TABLE 2

Clinical therapies for COVID-19

Compound/treatmentTargetPhaseClinicalTrials.gov identifierApproved for other clinical treatmentStatus
Camostat mesilateSerine proteases, e.g., TMPRSS2Phase 1/2NCT04321096Acute pancreatitis (Japan)Ongoing
ChlorpromazineClathrin-mediated endocytosisPhase 1/2NCT04354805Schizophrenia, manic depression, nausea, anxietyNot yet recruiting
Phase 3NCT04366739Not yet recruiting
Ciclesonide, an inhaled corticosteroidViral nonstructural protein 15 encoding an endonuclease and host processPhase 2NCT04330586Asthma and allergic rhinitis (Schaffner and Skoner, 2009)Not yet recruiting
Favipiravir (Avigan) with tocilizumabRdRpNot applicableNCT04310228Influenza (Japan)Ongoing
IL-6
Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquineAntiviral properties unclearVariousMultipleMalaria, autoimmune diseases (e.g., lupus, rheumatoid arthritis)Varies
Interferon-α1b nasal dropsHost immune response to virusPhase 3NCT04320238NoneOngoing
IvermectinViral transport into host nucleusVariesMultipleAntiparasiticOngoing
Lopinavir + ritonavir (Kaletra)3CLproPhase 4NCT04252885HIVOngoing; preliminary results show no benefit beyond standard care (Baden and Rubin, 2020)
Lopinavir-ritonavir + ribavirin and interferon beta-1b3CLpro, viral polymerase, host immune response to virusPhase 2NCT04276688HIVCompleted; significant improvement in outcomes (Hung et al., 2020)
NafamostatSerine proteasePhase 1NCT04352400Pancreatitis (Japan and Germany)Not yet recruiting
NiclosamideViral and host processesPhase 2 and 3NCT04345419Anthelminthic drugNot yet recruiting
NitazoxanideViral and host processesVariousMultipleAntiparasitic drugOngoing
RemdesivirRdRpPhase 3NCT04257656HIVTerminated
NCT04252664Terminated
NCT04292899Ongoing
NCT04280705Ongoing
Tocilizumab or sarilumaubHuman mAb that inhibits the IL-6 pathway by binding and blocking the IL-6 receptorVariousMultipleMultiple, including chimeric antigen receptor T cell–induced cytokine release syndrome, other autoimmune conditions (Barlow et al., 2020)Ongoing
Umifenovir (Arbidol)Viral membrane fusion of influenza a and bPhase 4NCT04260594Influenza (Russia and China)Not yet recruiting