TABLE 1

Animal group data from all studies Data are group means ± S.D.

Statistical comparisons by one-way ANOVA with Sidak’s post hoc test.

NStudy DeathsLoss of DiabetesBody Weight (g)Plasma Glucose (mg/dl)
Study 1 (Fig. 2)
 Control + vehicle100024.3 ± 0.6159 ± 12
 STZ + vehicle120022.4 ± 0.5**358 ± 59***
 STZ + 0.2% PZ120121.1 ± 1.3**386 ± 111***
 STZ + 1.0% PZ130021.3 ± 1.8**459 ± 79***
 STZ + 2.0% PZ90321.5 ± 1.3**483 ± 98***††
Study 2 (Fig. 3A)
 Control + vehicle43a022.8 ± 0.7139 ± 11
 Control + PZ70022.8 ± 0.4136 ± 12
 STZ + PZ (withdrawal)93020.8 ± 0.8***438 ± 69***
 STZ + PZ (reversal)102021.3 ± 0.5**495 ± 101***
Study 3 (Fig. 3B)
 Control + vehicle100027.6 ± 2.1153 ± 28
 STZ + vehicle100023.4 ± 2.2***560 ± 18***
 STZ + PZ (1/wk)100022.9 ± 2.2***587 ± 28***
 STZ + PZ (3/wk)73023.3 ± 2.8**593 ± 19***
 STZ + PZ (5/wk)110022.5 ± 1.4***589 ± 34***
Study 4 (Fig. 4)
 Control + vehicle100020.3 ± 1.1131 ± 15
 STZ + vehicle80020.0 ± 1.7437 ± 92***
 STZ + 2.0% PZ63020.0 ± 0.5434 ± 132***
 STZ + 10.0% PZ91020.5 ± 0.7415 ± 149***
Study 5 (Fig. 5)
 Control + vehicle100028.9 ± 1.3127 ± 13
 STZ + vehicle91026.9 ± 1.8*525 ± 107***
 STZ + 2.0% atropine (paw)82025.7 ± 1.3***542 ± 100***
 STZ + 2.0% atropine (eye)90127.1 ± 1.3524 ± 33***
  • PZ, pirenzepine.

  • * P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001 vs. control + vehicle; P < 0.05; ††P < 0.01 vs. STZ + vehicle.

  • a Animals died during an equipment malfunction.