TABLE 1

Withdrawal systems and symptoms conserved across species

Only symptoms for which there is correspondence across species are presented; additional symptoms exist that are species specific but are not included here.

Withdrawal System and SymptomsHumanRatMouse
Anhedonia
 Brain stimulation thresholdXX
 Conditioned aversionXX
 DepressionX
Anxiety/escape behaviors (rodents)
 AnxietyX
 BurrowingXX
 DiggingXX
 JumpingXX
 RearingXX
Changes in body temperature
 Hot and/or cold flashesX
 HypothermiaXX
 Piloerection (gooseflesh)XXX
 Teeth chatteringXX
Gastrointestional
 DefecationXX
 Diarrhea, Loose stoolXXX
 NauseaX
 VomitingX
Hyperactivity, self-directed behaviors
 ChewingXX
 GroomingXX
 LickingXX
 LocomotionXXX
 Penile lickingXX
 RestlessnessX
Motivation to use
 CravingX
 Progressive ratio breakpointXXX
 ReinstatementXX
Pain, hyperalgesia
 Joint aches and painsX
 Muscle aches and painsX
 Reactive to touchXX
 Ultrasonic vocalizationsXX
 WrithingXX
PtosisXX
Secretions
 LacrimationXXX
 RhinorrheaXXX
 SalivationXX
 UrinationXX
Tremors/shaking
 Facial tremorXX
 Forepaw tremorsXX
 Hand tremorsX
 Head shakesXX
 Limb shakesXX
 Wet dog shakesXX