TABLE 10

Summary of outcomes from preclinical and human empirical studies and prospective targets for evaluation

Neurotransmitter SystemProspective Medication Targets for Evaluation
Improved ≥1 Withdrawal SymptomaDid Not Improve Any Withdrawal SymptomsApproved for Use in Humans and Acts on Transmitter Systems of Interestb
DopamineBuspironeSulprideAcetophenazine
d-AmphetamineAripiprazolec
DesipramineAsenapine
DomperidoneClozapinec
FlupenthixolDomperidone
HaloperidolDroperidol
L-DOPAFluphenazine
MianserinFluspirilene
PimozideIloperidone
QuetiapineLoxapine
Lurasidonec
Mesoridazine
Methotrimeprazine
Metoclopramide
Molindone
Olanzapinec
Paliperidone
Perphenazine
Pimozide
Pipotiazine
Proclorperazine
Risperidone
Sulpiride
Ziprasidonec
SerotoninBuspironeAmitriptylineAripriprazolec
CyproheptadineBrexpiprazole
FenfluramineChlorpromazine
GlemanserinClozapinec
MianserinCyclobenzaprine
MirtazapineCyproheptadine
LorcaserinDesipramine
OndansetronLisuride
QuetiapineLorcaserin
TrazodoneLurasidonec
VenlafaxineMirtazapine
Olanzapinec
Palonosetron
Promethazine
Risperidone
Vortioxetine
Ziprasidonec
CannabinoidDronabinolCannabidiolCannabidiol
Nabilone
OrexinNRNRSuvorexant
GlutamateAmantadineNRAcamprosate
D-CycloserinePhenobarbital
FelbamateEsketamine
KetamineGuaifenesin
MemantinePentobarbital
NoribogainePerampanel
TopiramateRufinadmide
Secobarbital
  • NR, none reported.

  • a Medications may be listed more than once if they act on multiple systems.

  • b The medications included here are approved for use in humans and could be evaluated for possible opioid withdrawal symptom management. Note that each medication should be assessed for its potential side effect profile and contraindications, and that some medications may have abuse liability or other features that might limit their adoption in clinical settings.

  • c Medication acts on more than one target that may alleviate withdrawal.