TABLE 2

In vitro effects of nicotine on lung cancer

Lung Cancer Cell LineNicotine (μM)Duration of TreatmentSerum ConcentrationCellular Response (Assay)Result (Relative to Control)Reference
14 SCLC and NSCLC lines0.1–15 days10%Viability (MTT)No effectManeckjee and Minna (1990)
H460, H1570.1–17 days10%Viability (MTT)No effectChen et al. (2002)
201T148 h10%Viability (MTS)No effectCarlisle et al. (2007)
H4600.1, 15 days10%Viability (Cell Titer-Glo)20%, 25% increase*Zheng et al. 2007)
A549124 h10%Viability (MTT)20% increase*Zhang et al. (2009)
Growth ([3H]-thymidine)50% increase*
A549, H12990.1, 172 hNot indicatedViability (MTT)H1299: 20%, 5% increasePuliyappadamba et al. (2010)
A549: 10%, 15% increase
72 hGrowth ([3H]-thymidine)H1299: 15%, 5% increase
A549: 20%, 10% increase
Previously treated for 72 h, then seededProliferation (colony formation)A549: 175% increase (1 μM)
H441, H1299130 min or 7 daya10%Viability (MTT)100%, 75% increase (30 min),*Al-Wadei et al. (2012)
375%, 250% increase (7 days)*
H4460.1–112–72 h10%Viability (MTT)8, 5% increase at 12 h (0.1, 0.25 μM), no effect at 24–48 h,Zeng et al. (2012)
8% decrease at 72 h (0.5, 1 μM)
A54913–5 days10%Viability (MTT)40%–80% increase*Wu et al. (2013)
24 hInvasion (Boyden)60% increase*
A5490.1, 124 h10%Viability (MTS)40%, 55% decrease*Gao et al. (2016)
LKR, H580012 wkb10%Proliferation (colony formation)13%, 24% increaseNishioka et al. (2010)
SW900124 hNot indicatedProliferation (cell counting)275% increase*Chernyavsky et al. (2015)
A549124 h10%Invasion (Transwell)7% increaseSun and Ma (2015)
8 or 24 hMigration (wound healing)10% increase (8 h), 28% increase (24 h)*
A549, H460, LLC, T10.1–124 h10%Viability (MTS, MTT)No effectKyte et al. (2018)
A549, H460148–96 hViability (MTS, MTT)No effect
148 hProliferation (cell counting)No effect
124 hProliferation (colony formation)No effect
A5490.5, 116 h10%Angiogenesis (HIF-1α)350%, 750% increase*Zhang et al. (2007)
Angiogenesis (VEGF)14% increase (0.5 μM),
43% increase (1 μM)*
A549, H1299, H19750.1, 124 h10%Viability (MTT)A549: 39, 52% increase*Ma et al. (2014)
H1299: 13% increase (0.1 μM),
20% increase (1 μM)*
H1975: 30% increase (0.1 μM),
52% increase (1 μM)*
A5490.1–116 hAngiogenesis (HIF-1α)20%–40% increase (0.1, 0.5 μM),
100% increase (1 μM)*
A5490.1–116 hAngiogenesis (VEGF)75%, 125% increase (0.1, 0.5 μM),
175% increase (1 μM)*
  • HIF-1α, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α; LLC, Lewis lung carcinoma; MTS, (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium); MTT, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide; SCLC, small cell lung cancer; T1, primary human lung carcinoma; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor.

  • a Nicotine was replaced every 24 h.

  • b Nicotine was replenished every 4 days.

  • * Statistically significant.

  • Statistical significance not indicated.