How epigenetic modifications may contribute to pleiotropic and adverse effects of statins

Epigenetic ModificationDownstream EffectReference
 Increased histone acetylationIncreased expression of TSGs (p21)Lin et al. (2008)
 HMT inhibitionIncreased expression of TSGs (p27)Ishikawa et al. (2014)
 Decreased DNA methylationIncreased expression of TSGs (BMP2)Kodach et al. (2011)
 Upregulation of miR-612Increased cancer cell differentiation and chemosensitivityKarlic et al. (2015)
 Upregulation of miR-33bDownregulation of oncogene c-MycTakwi et al. (2012)
 Upregulation of miR-182Downregulation of antiapoptotic Bcl-2Peng et al. (2013)
 Downregulation of miR-34aUpregulation of SIRT1, HDAC1, and HDAC7Karlic et al. (2015)
Possible increased cancer cell proliferation and invasion
 Increased histone acetylationIncreased expression of antiatherosclerotic genes (CCR7 and ACE2)Feig et al. (2011)Tikoo et al. (2015)
 Downregulation of miR-34aUpregulation of SIRT1, HDAC1, and HDAC7Tabuchi et al. (2012)
Increased blood EPC counts
 Downregulation of miR-221 and miR-222Increased blood EPC countsMinami et al. (2009)
 Decreased DNA methylationIncreased FOXP3+ regulatory T cellsKim et al. (2010)
Diabetic nephropathy
 Increased histone methylationIncreased expression of antifibrotic genes (E-cadherin)Singh et al. (2016)
 Upregulation of miR-499-5pCorrelated with creatinine kinase levelsMin et al. (2016)
Liver damage
 Upregulation of miR-192Decreased ATP productionPek et al. (2016)