TABLE 1

The area under the concentration-time curve (AUC, µM·hour) of clopidogrel and its metabolites from 0 to 22 hours after incubation of clopidogrel (20 µM) with pooled human liver s9 fractions in the presence or absence of the CES1 inhibitor BNPP (10 µM)

Data are expressed as mean ± S.D. of three independent experiments.

Clopidogrel2-Oxo-ClopidogrelClopidogrel-AMClopidogrel Carboxylate2-Oxo-Clopidogrel CarboxylateClopidogrel-AM Carboxylate
Control1.76 ± 0.290.57 ± 0.040.45 ± 0.0445.38 ± 2.460.66 ± 0.070.25 ± 0.02
BNPP9.02 ± 0.50*1.93 ± 0.11*0.99 ± 0.04*8.35 ± 0.55*0.26 ± 0.03*0.14 ± 0.01*
  • AM, active metabolite; BNPP, bis(4-nitrophenyl) phosphate.

  • * P < 0.001 compared with controls.