TABLE 3

Chronic effects of remogliflozin etabonate on physiological and metabolic parameters in high-fat diet-fed GK rats Data are presented as means ± S.E.M. (n = 8 for Wistar rats, n = 8 for normal diet-fed GK rats, n = 10 for high-fat diet-fed GK rats). These rats were fed for 8 weeks a normal diet, high-fat diet, or high-fat diet containing 0.01, 0.03, or 0.1% remogliflozin etabonate. Plasma glucose, plasma insulin, GHb, and plasma triglyceride were monitored with the rats in the fed condition every 4 weeks. These rats were fasted for 16 h every 4 weeks, and the FPG and fasting plasma insulin were monitored. HOMA-R was also calculated.




Remogliflozin Etabonate

Body Weight

Plasma Glucose

Plasma Insulin

GHb

Plasma Triglyceride

FPG

Fasting Plasma Insulin

HOMA-R
% g mg/dl ng/ml % mg/dl ng/ml
Before treatment
   Wistar 367.6 ± 4.2 126 ± 2 2.3 ± 0.2 3.5 ± 0.1 235 ± 21 92 ± 2 0.4 ± 0.1 2.2 ± 0.4
   GK (normal diet) 261.0 ± 4.7†† 226 ± 9†† 3.3 ± 0.4 4.2 ± 0.1†† 82 ± 4†† 135 ± 2†† 0.6 ± 0.1 4.9 ± 0.9††
   GK (high-fat diet) 284.9 ± 3.5## 275 ± 10## 3.8 ± 0.2 4.7 ± 0.1## 259 ± 24## 167 ± 3## 1.2 ± 0.2## 11.6 ± 1.6##
0.01 282.9 ± 4.4 279 ± 9 3.8 ± 0.3 4.6 ± 0.1 255 ± 19 164 ± 3 1.1 ± 0.1 10.0 ± 1.1
0.03 284.8 ± 3.2 262 ± 8 3.8 ± 0.2 4.7 ± 0.1 261 ± 26 162 ± 3 1.1 ± 0.1 10.3 ± 0.7
0.1 285.6 ± 4.0 274 ± 11 3.7 ± 0.2 4.6 ± 0.0 274 ± 24 166 ± 4 1.1 ± 0.1 10.2 ± 0.8
Treated for 4 weeks
   Wistar 435.2 ± 7.8 118 ± 2 2.6 ± 0.2 3.7 ± 0.0 228 ± 16 95 ± 2 0.6 ± 0.1 3.3 ± 0.3
   GK (normal diet) 314.1 ± 5.3†† 234 ± 7†† 3.7 ± 0.4 4.7 ± 0.0†† 72 ± 6†† 138 ± 2†† 1.1 ± 0.1†† 8.4 ± 0.9††
   GK (high-fat diet) 341.8 ± 4.7## 273 ± 9## 4.2 ± 0.3 4.9 ± 0.1# 262 ± 15## 172 ± 2## 2.4 ± 0.2## 23.9 ± 1.7##
0.01 337.7 ± 5.2 264 ± 10 4.0 ± 0.3 4.8 ± 0.1 236 ± 22 169 ± 2 2.2 ± 0.1 21.0 ± 1.5
0.03 341.2 ± 4.0 227 ± 3** 3.1 ± 0.2* 4.7 ± 0.1 255 ± 9 166 ± 3 1.6 ± 0.2** 15.2 ± 1.3**
0.1 333.9 ± 4.0 207 ± 5** 2.8 ± 0.2** 4.4 ± 0.0** 221 ± 11 166 ± 2 1.3 ± 0.2** 12.4 ± 1.6**
Treated for 8 weeks
   Wistar 471.0 ± 7.5 115 ± 3 2.4 ± 0.3 3.5 ± 0.0 249 ± 16 89 ± 3 0.6 ± 0.1 3.3 ± 0.5
   GK (normal diet) 346.8 ± 5.5†† 246 ± 8†† 3.1 ± 0.3 4.8 ± 0.1†† 74 ± 6†† 146 ± 7†† 1.0 ± 0.1 8.3 ± 0.9††
   GK (high-fat diet) 379.0 ± 4.5## 301 ± 7## 4.3 ± 0.6 5.2 ± 0.1# 324 ± 33## 188 ± 3## 2.2 ± 0.2## 23.2 ± 2.6##
0.01 373.9 ± 4.6 264 ± 5** 4.0 ± 0.2 4.9 ± 0.1 251 ± 15 177 ± 4 2.1 ± 0.3 21.3 ± 2.5
0.03 368.9 ± 4.3 233 ± 6** 2.7 ± 0.2** 4.9 ± 0.1 211 ± 11** 168 ± 5** 2.0 ± 0.2 19.5 ± 2.3

0.1
361.0 ± 4.9*
210 ± 6**
1.8 ± 0.2**
4.6 ± 0.1**
199 ± 22**
162 ± 3**
1.2 ± 0.2**
11.2 ± 1.7**
  • p < 0.05

  • †† p < 0.01 vs. Wistar rats

  • # p < 0.05

  • ## p < 0.01 vs. normal diet-fed GK rats

  • * p < 0.05

  • ** p < 0.01 vs. high-fat fed-GK rats