Table 2

Population pharmacodynamic parameter estimates and standard error of estimate (θ ± S.E.) for intrinsic activity (α), potency (EC50), Hill slope (nH ), and baseline (E0) with the corresponding interindividual coefficient of variation (CV%) in parentheses

αEC50HillE0res-CV
μV ng · ml−1 μV %
Diazepam10.6 ± 1.2  (27)2-a 373 ± 97 (56)1.17 ± 0.17 (23)9.9 ± 0.7 (17)(11)
Flunitrazepam9.3 ± 0.7  (19)35.5 ± 10 (78)1.23 ± 0.11 (22)11.8 ± 0.5 (13)(8)
Midazolam9.2 ± 1.1  (33)161 ± 33 (48)1.13 ± 0.08  (<1)12.1 ± 0.5 (9)(9)
Clobazam7.5 ± 0.5  (16)1080 ± 217 (49)2.35 ± 0.32 (34)12.0 ± 0.6 (13)(7)
Zolpidem5.8 ± 0.7  (26)290 ± 74 (64)2.2 ± 0.7 (46)10.5 ± 0.7 (17)(9)
Oxazepam4.9 ± 0.6  (37)612 ± 119 (53)2.74 ± 0.38 (32)11.5 ± 0.9 (21)(6)
Zopiclone3.8 ± 0.6  (35)179 ± 48 (73)2.94 ± 0.73 (58)9.2 ± 0.4 (16)(10)
Bretazenil1.2 ± 0.5  (99)1.3 ± 0 (—)0.62 ± 0.12 (—)9.8 ± 1.2  (fixed)(11)
DMCM−0.8 ± 0.2  (45)0.95 ± 2.3 (520)1.77 ± 0.30 (0)10.3 ± 1.5  (fixed)(13)

Intraindividual residual variation (res-CV) is depicted in the last column.

  • —, fixed at zero, thus no interindividual variation.

  • 2-a Different from the intrinsic activity of zolpidem, oxazepam, zopiclone, bretazenil, and DMCM but not from midazolam, flunitrazepam, and clobazam (p < 0.05).