Table 2

Summary of generalization testing

Individual Drug AnalysesAcross Drugs Analyses2-aTukey HSD Test2-b
HydroPentaButorNalbuBupreDrugDoseDrug × Dose
Discrimination operant responding
 H-appropriate<.001 ↑<.001 ↑2-c <.001 ↑.014<.001.002Bt < H
 Not H-appropriate<.001 ↓<.001 ↓.061 (↓)<.001 ↓.015<.001.001P,Bt > H
Point distribution
 H-appropriate<.001 ↑<.001 ↑.001 ↑.032<.001.017Bt < H
 Not H-appropriate<.001 ↓<.001 ↓.001 ↓.025<.001.021Bt > H
Discrete choice
 H-appropriate<.001 ↑<.001 ↑<.001 ↑.025<.001.001Bt < H
 Not H-appropriate<.001 ↓<.001 ↓<.001 ↓.025<.001.001Bt > H
VAS
 Like Drug A (H)<.001 ↑<.001 ↑.072 (↑).014 ↑.001 ↑.004<.001.002P,Bt,N,Bp < H
 Like Not Drug A<.001 ↓<.001 ↓.012 ↓.080 (↓)<.001 ↓<.001NS
 Drug Effect<.001 ↑<.001 ↑.001 ↑.022 ↑.006 ↑<.001NS
 High<.001 ↑.028 ↑.005 ↑.040 ↑.031 ↑.002NS
 Liking<.001 ↑.016 ↑.011 ↑.010.027P,Bt,N < H
VAS
 Good Effects<.001 ↑.018 ↑.081 (↑).014 ↑.013.066P,Bt,N < H
 Bad Effects.080 (↑).092NS
ARCI
 MBG.022 ↑.073 (↑).069.047Bt < H
 PCAG.079 (↑).016NS
 LSDNS
 BG.076 (↑).028 ↑.049NS
 Amphetamine.020 ↑.006 ↑.045 ↑.062 (↑).080.009NS
Adjective rating scales
 Agonist<.001 ↑.066 (↑).026 ↑.009 ↑.021 ↑.002N < H
 Antagonist.080Bt > H
 Agonist-antagonistBt > H
Physiological and psychomotor/cognitive measures
 Pupil diameter<.001 ↓.002 ↓<.001 ↓<.001 ↓<.001 ↓.002<.001NS
 Oral temperature.009NS
 Heart rate.081 (↓).001 ↑.006.002NS
 DSST no. correct<.001 ↓.080 (↓)NS
 DSST no. attempted.001 ↓Bt < H

Results of individual and across-drug analyses. Individual drug analyses were determined by repeated measures, one factor ANOVA (main effect of dose). Across-drug analyses were determined by repeated measures, two factor ANOVA (drug, dose, and drug × dose interactions). Values represent P values; all Pvalues ≤.10 are shown. Arrows indicate the direction of statistically significant (P ≤ .05) individual drug effects; arrows in parentheses indicate the direction of drug effects with Pvalues greater than .05 and less than or equal to .10. Tukey HSD test lists significant differences between agonist-antagonists and hydromorphone, 4 mg/70 kg, and the direction of the differences (N = 8).

  • Hydro, hydromorphone (0, 0.125, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 mg/70 kg); Penta, pentazocine (0, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 mg/70 kg); Butor, butorphanol (0, 0.375, 0.75, 1.5, 3, 6 mg/70 kg); Nalbu, nalbuphine (0, 1.5, 3, 6, 12, 24 mg/70 kg); Bupren, buprenorphine 0, 0.055, 0.11, 0.22, 0.45, 0.9 mg/70 kg.

  • 2-a In across-drug analyses, only hydromorphone (0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 mg/70 kg) was included.

  • 2-b P, pentazocine (64 mg/70 kg); Bt, butorphanol (6 mg/70 kg); N, nalbuphine (24 mg/70 kg); Bp, buprenorphine (0.9 mg/70 kg); H, hydromorphone (4 mg/70 kg); NS, no significant differences.

  • 2-c  —, P > .10.