TABLE 4

Mast cell mediators

MediatorPathophysiologic Effect
Prestored
 Biogenic amines
  DopamineNeurotransmission
  HistamineVasodilation, angiogenesis, mitogenesis, pain
  5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin)Vasoconstriction, pain
 Polyamines
  Spermidine, spermineSecretory granule stability, inhibition of secretion
 Chemokines
  IL-8 (CXCL8), MCP-1 (CCL2), MCP-3 (CCL7), MCP-4, RANTES  (CCL5), Eotaxin (CCL11)Chemoattraction and tissue infiltration of leukocytes
 Cytokines
  IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-15, IL-17, IL-31, IL-33, TNFImmune cell maturation, inflammation
 Enzymes
  Arylsulfatases ALipid/proteoglycan hydrolysis
  Beta-hexosaminidaseDegradation processes
  Beta-glucuronidaseDegradation processes
  Beta-glucosaminidaseDegradation processes
  Beta-D-galactosidasesesDegradation processes
  Carboxypeptidase APeptide processing
  Cathepsins B,C, D, E, LDegradation processes
  ChymaseTissue damage, pain, angiotensin II synthesis
  Grnzyme BInflammation and preapoptotic effects
  KinogenasesnSynthesis of vasodilatory kinins, pain
  PhospholipasesArachidonic acid generation
  ReninAngiotensin II generation
  Tryptase, painTissue damage, activation of PAR, inflammation, pain
  Metalloproteinases (CPA3, MMP9, ADAMTSS)Tissue damage, modification of cytokines/chemokines
 Growth factors
  b-FGFNeovascularization
  NGFNerve growth, mast cell activation
  SCF mast cell growth and activationMast cell growth and activation
  TGFβAnti-inflammatory, profibrotic
  VEGFNeovascularization, vasodilation
 Peptides
  ACTH
  AngiogeninNeovascularization
  AngiopoietinNeovascularization
  Corticotropin-releasing hormoneInflammation, mast cell stimulus, vasodilation
  EndorphinsAnalgesia
  EndothelinSepsis
  Hemokinin-1Inflammation, mast cell stimulus, pain, vasodilation
  Kinins (bradykinin)Inflammation, mast cell stimulus, pain, vasodilation
  LeptinFood intake regulator
  MeltoninBiologic clock regulator
  NeurotensinInflammation, mast cell stimulus, vasodilation
  RANKLOsteoclast differentiation and activation
  SomatostatinMast cell stimulant, antisecretory
  Substance PInflammation, mast cell stimulus, pain
  UrocortinInflammation, vasodilation
  Vasoactive intestinal peptideVasodilation, mast cell activation
 Proteoglycans
  Chondroitin sulfateCartilage synthesis, anti-inflammatory
  HeparinAngiogenesis, nerve growth factor stabilization
  Hyaluronic acidConnective tissue, nerve growth factor stabilization
  SerglycinStorage of granule proteases
De novo synthesized
 Chemokines
  CCL2, CXCL8, MIP-1α, MCP-1
 Cytokines
  IL-1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 13, 16, and 18Inflammation, leukocyte migration, pain
  IFN-α, IFN- β, IFN-γ; MIF; TGFβ; TNFInflammation, leukocyte proliferation/activation
 Growth factors
  SCF, β-FGF, neurotrophin 3, NGF, PDGF, TGFβ, VEGFGrowth of a variety of cells
 Nitric oxideVasodilation
 Phospholipid metabolites
  Leukotriene B4Leukocyte chemotaxis
  Leukotriene C4Vasoconstriction, pain
  Platelet activating factorPlatelet activation, vasodilation
  Prostaglandin D2Bronchonstriction, pain
  • IFN, interferon; MIF, macrophage inflammatory factor; MIP, macrophage inflammatory protein; NGF, nerve growth factor; PAR, protease activated receptors; PDGF, platelet-derived growth factor; RANKL, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-Β ligand; SCF, stem cell factor; TGFβ, transforming growth factor β; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor.