TABLE 3

Mast cell triggers

Mast Cell Trigger
Stimulating degranulation
 Acetylcholine
 Adenosine
 Complement fragments: C3α, C4α, C5α
 Drugs: local anesthetics, lactam antibiotics, neuromuscular junction blockers, vancomycin
 Eosinophil granule proteins
 IgE
 IgG1
 IgG4
 Lysophosphatidylserine
 Histamine
 Serotonin
 Lysophosphatidic acid
 Peptides: adrenomedullin, CGRP, endorphin, endothelin, hemokinin-1, leptin, mastoparan, meurotensin, NGF, PTH, somatostatin, SP, thrombin, VIP
 Tryptase
Stimulating selective release of mediators without degranulation
 ATP
Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease)
 CRH
 Heavy metals: aluminum, cadmium, mercury
 Herbicides: atrazine, glyphosate
 IL-33
 Mycotoxins
 LPS
 SCF
 Viruses
  • CGRP, calcitonin-gene related peptide; LPS, lipopolyssacharide; NGF, nerve growth factor; PTH, parathyroid hormone; SCF, stem cell factor; VIP, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide.