TABLE 1 

Participant demographics and baseline characteristics: oral and intranasal abuse potential studies (randomized sets)

Oral Abuse Potential Study (n = 40)Intranasal Abuse Potential Study (n = 36)
Mean age, years (S.D.)39.8 (9.2)35.6 (8.8)
Male, n (%)32 (80.0)26 (72.2)
Race, n (%)
White29 (72.5)30 (83.3)
Black or African American7 (17.5)5 (13.9)
Asian3 (7.5)1 (2.8)
American Indian or Alaska Native1 (2.5)
Ethnicity, n (%)
Hispanic or Latino3 (7.5)0 (0.0)
Not Hispanic or Latino37 (92.5)36 (100.0)
Mean BMI, kg/m2 (S.D.)26.5 (3.2)25.5 (3.0)
Prior recreational drug usage, n (%)
Opioids and morphine derivatives40 (100.0)36 (100.0)
Cannabinoids29 (72.5)32 (88.9)
Stimulants29 (72.5)29 (77.8)
Depressants8 (20.0)16 (44.4)
Hallucinogens8 (20.0)15 (41.7)
Dissociative anesthetics3 (7.5)9 (25.0)
Number of times opioids used, mean (S.D.)
In past 8 weeks10.2 (6.1)13.1 (11.8)
In past 12 months54.8 (37.7)67.6 (50.9)
Number of times intranasal opioids used, mean (S.D.)
In past 3 months11.9 (9.8)
In past 12 months57.7 (51.4)
  • BMI, body mass index; S.D., standard deviation.