TABLE 1

Pharmacological approaches for management of PPIX-mediated photosensitivity

ApproachesMechanismsOutcomesReferences
β-carotene• Prevents penetration of sunlight• Effective in some patientsTintle et al., 2014
• Acts as a scavenger for reactive radicals• Causes yellowing of skinKrook and Haeger-Aronsen, 1982
Phototherapy• Increases skin pigmentation and thickness• Effective in some patientsWarren and George, 1998
• Narrow-band UVB• Induces UV tolerance• May potentiate erythema and skin photoagingCollins and Ferguson, 1995
• Psoralen UVA• Affects Langerhans cells
Cysteine• Increases sunlight tolerance• Efficacy not establishedMathews-Roth et al., 1994
Afamelanotide• Binds to the melanocortin 1 receptor• Decreased photosensitivity and improved quality of lifeSawyer et al., 1980; Minder et al., 2009; Fabrikant et al., 2013; Biolcati et al., 2015; Langendonk et al., 2015; Lengweiler et al., 2015; Minder and Schneider-Yin, 2015
• Induces production of eumelanin that serves as a natural filter to reduce all wavelengths of light, quench UV light, and decrease free radicals
Antihistamines• Histamine H-receptor antagonists• Limited efficacyWahlin et al., 2011a
Vitamin C• Prevent oxidative damage from ROS• Limited efficacyBoffa et al., 1996