The expanded toolbox available for the chicken embryo model

Tools and MethodsReference to Method or ReviewExamples of Applications
Ex ovo incubationAuerbach et al., 1974Imaging and microsurgery (Yalcin et al., 2010)
Technical aspects described in Dohle et al. 2009
ImagingKulesa et al., 2013
 Fluorescent tracersClarke, 2008Axon tracing (Glover et al., 1986)
Altered projections in the spinal cord caused by retinoids (Forehand et al., 1998)
 MRIHogers et al., 2009Monitoring of chicken brain development (Zhou et al., 2015)
 PETWalking-like brain function in embryos (Balaban et al., 2012)
The chicken embryo for evaluation of radiopharmaceuticals (Haller et al., 2015)
Chicken stem cells
 Stem cells available from several organsIntarapat and Stern, 2013Neuronal differentiation of pluripotent stem-like cells in chickens (Dai et al., 2014)
Chimeric models
 Quail-chick chimerasDeveloped by Le Douarin and Renaud, 1969Fate-mapping studies to investigate developmental roles of the neural crest (Le Douarin, 2004)
Reviewed in Teillet et al., 2008Studies of cerebellar development (Hallonet et al., 1990)
 Xenotransplantation of human stem cells into the chickenGlover et al., 2009Study of neuronal migration (Kharazi, Levy et al., 2013)
Boulland et al., 2010
Disease-prone strains
  Fayoumi strainA model for epilepsy; described in Nunoya et al., 1983Evaluation of anticonvulsant drugs (Loscher, 1984; Johnson et al., 1985) and how seizures alter the development of the brain (Gong et al., 2003)
 Obese strain of chickenStudies of autoimmune thyroiditis as described in Wick, Sundick et al., 1974 and Dietrich et al., 1999Neuroendocrine alterations caused by thyroiditis (Schauenstein et al., 1987)
Gain and loss of functionSauka-Spengler and Barembaum, 2008
Krull, 2004
 Gain of function
 In ovo electroporationNakamura et al., 2004Overexpression of genes in Purkinje cells (Luo and Redies, 2004)
Tbx4 and Fgf10 in lung bud formation (Sakiyama et al., 2003)
 Retroviral vectorSato, 2004Wnt5a in pulmonary development (Loscertales et al., 2008)
 Loss of function
 RNAi gene silencingAndermatt and Stoeckli, 2014Axonin/TAG-1 in cerebellar development (Baeriswyl and Stoeckli, 2008)
 MorpholinosKos et al., 2003Transcription factor FoxD3 in the development of the neural crest (Kos et al., 2001)
  • MRI, magnetic resonance imaging; PET, positron emission tomography; RNAi, RNA interference.