TABLE 1

Examples of specific parameters available in chickens for quantitative evaluation of drug responses

Specific Tests/EndpointsRelevance to Human DiseaseChicken References
CNS function
 Physiologic
  EEGMonitoring brain function, epileptic activity, and focal brain diseaseGuy et al., 1995; Di Pascoli et al., 2013
  EMGMonitoring neuromuscular function and motility
 Structural
  Brain weightCNS growthMcCutcheon et al., 1982; Fabene and Sbarbati, 2004; Aden et al., 2008, 2011; Balaban et al., 2012; Mathisen et al., 2013
  PET scanStructural and functional neuroimaging relevant in diffuse and focal brain disease
  MRI
  Morphology, measuring thickness of the cerebellar EGL and IGLCerebellar abnormalities are clinically important causes of neurodevelopmental disabilities in premature babies, often manifested by cognitive, behavioral, attentional, and socialization deficits (Volpe, 2009)
 Biochemical
  Transcription factor PAX6Important for cerebellar development and migration (Engelkamp et al., 1999); linked to autism (Umeda et al., 2010)Cicero and Provine, 1972; Hunziker and Schrickel, 1988; Koszka et al., 1991; Marzban et al., 2010; Mezey et al., 2012; Mathisen et al., 2013; Flace et al., 2014; Pinkas et al., 2015
  Calbindin D28kHighly expressed in the cerebellum; associated with autism (Whitney et al., 2008) and hereditary ataxia in humans (Koeppen et al., 2013)
  Microtubule-associated protein-2Neuronal growth and plasticity (Johnson and Jope, 1992)
  NeuNMarker for neuronal maturation (Sarnat et al., 1998)
  S-100Marker enabling monitoring of brain injury in blood and CSF (Sun et al., 2012)
Respiratory function
 Physiologic
  Tidal volumeMonitoring respiratory functionMortola and Labbe, 2005; Szdzuy and Mortola, 2007
  Breathing rate
  Minute ventilation
  Oxygen consumption
 Structural
  Lung weightPulmonary growthHylka and Doneen, 1983; Maina, 2004a; Bjornstad et al., 2014
  Morphology with staging of fetal lung development (embryonal, pseudoglandular, atrio-infundibular or air-capillar)Insufficient lung development is associated with respiratory distress syndrome
 Biochemical
  Pulmonary surfactant components (spB, PC, DSPL)Surfactants increase compliance, lower surface tension, and prevent atelectasis of the lungs; lack of surfactants causes respiratory distress of the newbornHylka and Doneen, 1983; Makanya et al., 2007, 2013; Been et al., 2010; Bjornstad et al., 2014
  Aquaporin 5Expressed in human type I pneumocytes, vital for gas exchange (Kreda et al., 2001)
  Caveolin 1Expressed in mature gas exchange tissue of the human lung (Kaarteenaho et al., 2010)
  VEGFImportant for sufficient vascularization of the gas exchange membrane
  • CSF, cerebral spinal fluid; DSPL, disaturated phospholipids; EEG, electroencephalography; EGL, external granule layer; EMG, electromyography; IGL, internal granule layer; MRI, magnetic resonance imaging; PC, phosphatidylcholine; PET, positron emission tomography; spB, pulmonary surfactant protein B; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor.