TABLE 1

The levels of Gal-3 in fibrotic patients and its role in in vivo and in vitro fibrotic models

SubjectsMechanismsGal-3 InhibitionReferences
Liver fibrosisHSCsGal-3 initiates ERK1/2ThiodigalactosideMaeda et al., 2003
Gal-3−/− miceTGF-β ↓, α-SMA ↓, procollagen (I) ↓Gal-3−/−Henderson et al., 2006; Jiang et al., 2012
Cirrhotic miceGal-3 ↑, collagen I ↑BMCde Oliveira et al., 2012
SD ratsGal-3-positive macrophages ↑GR-MD-02, 
GM-CT-01Traber et al., 2013
PatientsGal-3 ↑, Gal-3 binding protein ↑Henderson et al., 2006; Cheung et al., 2010
Vascular fibrosisVSMCsCollagen I ↑Modified citrus pectin, Gal-3 siRNACalvier et al., 2013
Gal-3−/− miceInflammation ↓, collagen I ↓Gal-3−/−Calvier et al., 2013
Systemic sclerosisPatientsGal-3 ↑Taniguchi et al., 2012; Koca et al., 2014
Renal fibrosisGal-3−/− miceTotal collagen ↑, MFb ↓, 
ECM ↓, Endo180 ↓Gal-3−/−Okamura et al., 2011
MFb ↓, collagen I ↓, YM1 ↓, 
IL-4 ↓Gal-3−/−Dang et al., 2012
Gal-3−/−/CD11b-DTR miceGal-3 ↓, FB activation ↓Gal-3−/−, depleted macrophagesHenderson et al., 2008
Cardiac fibrosisFBGal-3–induced collagen ↑, 
cyclin D1 ↑Sharma et al., 2004; Yu et al., 2013
TGRmRen2-27 ratsGal-3 ↑, activated macrophagesSharma et al., 2004
SD ratGal-3–induced TGF-β/Smad3 ↑, macrophages ↑, mast cells ↑Ac-SDKPLiu et al., 2009
Gal-3−/− miceCollagen ↓Gal-3−/−, 
N-acetyllactosamineYu et al., 2013
Pulmonary fibrosisU937 monocytesTNF-α– and IFN-γ –induced 
Gal-3 ↑Nishi et al., 2007
THP-1 macrophagesGal-3–induced TNF-α ↑, 
IFN-γ ↑,Nishi et al., 2007
NIH-3T3 FBCollagen ↑Nishi et al., 2007
Gal-3−/− miceEMT ↓, MFb ↓, collagen ↓, 
β-catenin ↓Gal-3−/−, TD139Mackinnon et al., 2012
PatientsGal-3 ↑CorticosteroidNishi et al., 2007; Mackinnon et al., 2012
  • Ac-SDKP, N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline; BMC, bone marrow cell; GM-CT-01, galactomannan; GR-MD-02, galactoarabino-rhamnogalaturonan; IFN-γ, interferon-γ; siRNA, small interfering RNA; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor-α; VSMCs, vascular smooth muscle cells.