Table 1

Urinary nicotine and nicotine metabolite levels

MetaboliteNicotine PatchaBaseline Smokingb
A.A. (n = 51) Mean (Group S.D.; Mean Intraindividual S.D.)White (n = 42) Mean (Group S.D.; Mean Intraindividual S.D.)(n = 93) RangeA.A. (n = 32) Mean (S.D.)White (n = 27) Mean (S.D.)(n = 59) Range
Free nicotine (nmol/ml)12.9 (9.4; 4.8)9.9 (6.5; 4.0)1.6–42.08.8* (4.8)6.0* (4.9)0.2–22.6
Total nicotine (nmol/ml)c15.6 (11.2; 5.4)13.7 (8.1; 4.4)1.9–49.319.4 (11.5)15.1 (12.8)1.7–64.6
Free cotinine (nmol/ml)12.7* (6.2; 2.2)9.5* (4.2; 1.9)2.0–32.16.1* (2.8)4.4* (2.9)1.1–13.1
Total cotinine (nmol/ml)c24.4 (14.0; 7.7)28.2 (16.1; 6.8)2.4–79.925.3 (12.7)23.6 (15.1)4.1–59.9
Total trans-3′-hydroxycotinine (nmol/ml)c41.2 (27.7; 11)42.0 (25.5; 12.7)1.7–12432.6 (21.8)22.6 (17.4)2.2–94.2
Nicotine equivalents (nmol/ml)d81.2 (39.4; 16.8)84.0 (42.7; 21.0)14.9–21677.4 (34.9)61.7 (36.7)13.4–161
Nicotine equivalents (μmol/24 h)78.7 (25.6)90.2 (32.8)31.6–144
% Nicotine glucuronidee18.1* (12.7)29.3* (16.9)0.4–67.551.4 (9.1)57.4 (15.3)19.6–89.4
% Cotinine glucuronidee41.4* (20.7)61.7** (14.2)8.6–84.471.2* (13.9)79.8* (11.8)35.8–94.4
  • A.A., African American.

  • * p < 0.05;

  • ** p <0.005.

  • a Nicotine and metabolites were quantified in 24-h urine while participants were on the nicotine patch; mean values from 3 days per participant.

  • b Nicotine and metabolites were quantified in a 24-h urine sample while participants were smoking ad libitum.

  • c Total analyte represents the sum of the analyte and its glucuronide conjugate.

  • d Sum of urinary total nicotine, total cotinine, and total trans-3′-hydroxycotinine.

  • e Percentage of glucuronide = [(total analyte − free analyte)/total analyte × 100].