NAD-related metabolites and their relationship to disease states in humans


Nutritional or Pharmacologic Condition


Associated Effects

Nicotinamide High dose (25-50 mg kg-1) Diabetes Protection of islets Knip et al., 2000; Gale et al., 2004
Nicotinamide High dose Cardiac disease and stroke Protection of tissues Virag and Szabo, 2002
Nicotinamide High dose Fetal ischemia Neuroprotection Ieraci and Herrera, 2006
Fetal alcohol syndrome Feng et al., 2007
Nicotinamide riboside No proven use Bacterial infection (Hemophilus influenzae) Precursor for Bacterial NAD+ Belenky et al., 2007
Nicotinic acid High-dose (Fast release or slow release 1-20 g day-1) Hypercholesterolemia Reduced lipids (low density lipoproteins, fatty acids and cholesterol) Capuzzi et al., 2000; Carlson, 2004
Kamanna and Kashyap, 2000
Increased HDL
Reduced mortality
Reduced cardiac incidents
Tryptophan Nutritional supplement Niacin deficiency Restoration of NAD+ levels in tissues Fukuwatari et al., 2004
NAD+ No proven use Stroke Depletion of NAD+ Hassa et al., 2006
Cardiac ischemia Cell and Tissue Death Virag and Szabo, 2002
Vitamin B3 (all forms and tryptophan) Nutritional deficiency Pellagra or B3 deficiency Low NAD+ levels Belenky et al., 2007
Dermititis Revollo et al., 2007
Vitamin B3 (all forms and tryptophan) Nutritional deficiency Cancer (in B3 deficiency) UV sensitivity Kirkland, 2003
DNA damage sensitivity