Pharmacologic contributions of directly agonizing glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor or antagonizing glucagon receptor (GCGR) on energy state and glucose homeostasis were assessed in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. Metabolic rate and respiratory quotient (RQ), hyperglycemic clamp, stable isotope-based dynamic metabolic profiling (SiDMAP) studies of 13C-labeled glucose during glucose tolerance test (GTT), and gene expression were assessed in cohorts of DIO mice following a single administration of GLP-1 analog (GLP-1-(23)) or anti-GCGR Ab. GLP-1-(23) and GCGR Ab similarly improved GTT. GLP-1-(23) decreased food intake and body weight trended lower. GCGR Ab modestly decreased food intake without significant effect on body weight. GLP-1-(23) and GCGR Ab decreased RQ with GLP-1 causing a greater effect. In a hyperglycemic clamp, GLP-1-(23) reduced hepatic glucose production (HGP), increased glucose infusion rate (GIR), increased glucose uptake in brown adipose tissue, and increased whole body glucose turnover, glycolysis, and rate of glycogen synthesis. GCGR Ab slightly decreased HGP, increased GIR, and increased glucose uptake in the heart. SiDMAP showed that GLP-1-(23) and GCGR Ab increased 13C lactate labeling from glucose, indicating that liver, muscle, and other organs were involved in rapid disposal of glucose from plasma. GCGR Ab and GLP-1-(23) caused different changes in mRNA expression levels of glucose- and lipid metabolism-associated genes. The effect of GLP-1-(23) on energy state and glucose homeostasis was greater than GCGR Ab. Although GCGR antagonism is associated with increased circulating levels of GLP-1, most GLP-1-(23)-associated pharmacologic effects are more pronounced than GCGR Ab.
- Received January 26, 2011.
- Revision received March 28, 2011.
- Accepted March 28, 2011.
- The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics