We recently showed that ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) of the heart causes CD38 activation with resultant depletion of the cardiac NADP(H) pool, which is most marked in the endothelium. This NADP(H) depletion was shown to limit the production of nitric oxide by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), which requires NADPH for nitric oxide production, resulting in greatly altered endothelial function. Therefore, intervention with CD38 inhibitors could reverse postischemic eNOS-mediated endothelial dysfunction. Here, we evaluated the potency of the CD38 inhibitor luteolinidin, an anthocyanidin, at blocking CD38 activity and preserving endothelial and myocardial function in the postischemic heart. Initially, we characterized luteolinidin as a CD38 inhibitor in vitro to determine its potency and mechanism of inhibition. We then tested luteolinidin in the ex vivo isolated heart model, where we determined luteolinidin uptake with aqueous and liposomal delivery methods. Optimal delivery methods were then further tested to determine the effect of luteolinidin on postischemic NAD(P)(H) and tetrahydrobiopterin levels. Finally, through nitric oxide synthase–dependent coronary flow and left ventricular functional measurements, we evaluated the efficacy of luteolinidin to protect vascular and contractile function, respectively, after I/R. With enhanced postischemic preservation of NADPH and tetrahydrobiopterin, there was a dose-dependent effect of luteolinidin on increasing recovery of endothelium-dependent vasodilatory function, as well as enhancing the recovery of left ventricular contractile function with increased myocardial salvage. Thus, luteolinidin is a potent CD38 inhibitor that protects the heart against I/R injury with preservation of eNOS function and prevention of endothelial dysfunction.
- Received December 9, 2016.
- Accepted January 17, 2017.
This research was supported by the National Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute [Grants R01-HL131941 and R01-HL135648] and the National Institutes of Health National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering [Grant R01-EB0169096].
- Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics