Xenin-25, a neurotensin (NT)-related anorexigenic gut hormone generated mostly in the duodenal mucosa, is believed to increase the rate of duodenal ion secretion, because xenin-induced diarrhea is not present after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Because the local effects of xenin on duodenal ion secretion have remained uninvestigated, we thus examined the neural pathways underlying xenin-induced duodenal anion secretion. Intravenous infusion of xenin-8, a bioactive C-terminal fragment of xenin-25, dose dependently increased the rate of duodenal HCO3− secretion in perfused duodenal loops of anesthetized rats. Xenin was immunolocalized to a subset of enteroendocrine cells in the rat duodenum. The mRNA of the xenin/NT receptor 1 (NTS1) was predominantly expressed in the enteric plexus, nodose and dorsal root ganglia, and in the lamina propria rather than in the epithelium. The serosal application of xenin-8 or xenin-25 rapidly and transiently increased short-circuit current in Ussing-chambered mucosa-submucosa preparations in a concentration-dependent manner in the duodenum and jejunum, but less so in the ileum and colon. The selective antagonist for NTS1, substance P (SP) receptor (NK1), or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)3, but not NTS2, inhibited the responses to xenin. Xenin-evoked Cl- secretion was reduced by tetrodotoxin (TTX) or capsaicin-pretreatment, and abolished by the inhibitor of TTX-resistant sodium channel Nav1.8 in combination with TTX, suggesting that peripheral xenin augments duodenal HCO3− and Cl− secretion through NTS1 activation on intrinsic and extrinsic afferent nerves, followed by release of SP and 5-HT. Afferent nerve activation by postprandial, peripherally released xenin may account for its secretory effects in the duodenum.
- Received October 25, 2016.
- Accepted January 18, 2017.
This study was supported by VA Merit Review (J.D.K.); the National Institutes of Health National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases [Grant R01-DK54221] (J.D.K.); and American Gastroenterology Association-Rome Foundation Functional Gastroenterology and Motility Disorders Pilot Research Award (I.K.).
No conflicts of interest are declared.
- U.S. Government work not protected by U.S. copyright