In vivo, guanine moieties in DNA, RNA, guanine nucleotides, or guanosine or guanine per se can undergo nitration (for example, by peroxynitrite) or hydroxylation (for example, by superoxide anion) on position 8 of the purine ring. Subsequent catabolism of these modified biomolecules leads to the production of a diverse group of 8-nitro, 8-amino, and 8-hydroxy guanosine and guanine compounds. Indeed, studies suggest the in vivo existence of 8-nitroguanosine, 8-nitroguanine, 8-aminoguanosine, 8-aminoguanine, 8-hydroxyguanosine, 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, and 8-hydroxyguanine. Since a multitude of these compounds exist in vivo, and since the renal effects of 8-substituted guanosine and guanine compounds are entirely unknown, we examined the effects of guanosine, guanine, 8-nitroguanosine, 8-nitroguanine, 8-hydroxyguanosine, 8-hydroxyguanine, 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, 8-aminoguanosine, and 8-aminoguanine (33.5 µmol/kg/min; intravenous infusion for 115 minutes) on excretion of sodium, potassium, and glucose in rats. Guanosine, 8-nitroguanosine, and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine had minimal natriuretic activity. Guanine, 8-nitroguanine, 8-hydroxyguanosine, and 8-hydroxyguanine had moderate natriuretic activity (increased sodium excretion by 9.4-, 7.8-, 7.1-, and 8.6-fold, respectively). In comparison with all other compounds, 8-aminoguanosine and 8-aminoguanine were highly efficacious and increased sodium excretion by 26.6- and 17.2-fold, respectively, exceeding that of a matched dose of amiloride (13.6-fold increase). 8-Aminoguanosine and 8-aminoguanine also increased glucose excretion by 12.1- and 12.2-fold, respectively, and decreased potassium excretion by 69.1 and 71.0%, respectively. Long-term radiotelemetry studies demonstrated that oral 8-aminoguanosine and 8-aminoguanine (5 mg/kg/day) suppressed deoxycorticosterone/salt-induced hypertension. These experiments demonstrate that some naturally occurring 8-substitued guanosine and guanine compounds, particularly 8-aminoguanosine and 8-aminoguanine, are potent and efficacious potassium-sparing diuretics/natriuretics that may represent a novel class of antihypertensive diuretics.
- Received September 2, 2016.
- Accepted September 22, 2016.
The work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [DK091190, HL069846, DK068575, HL109002, and DK079307].
- Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics