Current therapies are less effective for treating sustained/permanent versus paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF). We and others have previously shown that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition reverses structural and electrical atrial remodeling in mice with inducible, paroxysmal-like AF. Here, we hypothesize an important, specific role for class I HDACs in determining structural atrial alterations during sustained AF. The class I HDAC inhibitor N-acetyldinaline [4-(acetylamino)-N-(2-amino-phenyl) benzamide] (CI-994) was administered for 2 weeks (1 mg/kg/day) to Hopx transgenic mice with atrial remodeling and inducible AF and to dogs with atrial tachypacing-induced sustained AF. Class I HDAC inhibition prevented atrial fibrosis and arrhythmia inducibility in mice. Dogs were divided into three groups: 1) sinus rhythm, 2) sustained AF plus vehicle, and 3) sustained AF plus CI-994. In group 3, the time in AF over 2 weeks was reduced by 30% compared with group 2, along with attenuated atrial fibrosis and intra-atrial adipocyte infiltration. Moreover, group 2 dogs had higher atrial and serum inflammatory cytokines, adipokines, and atrial immune cells and adipocytes compared with groups 1 and 3. On the other hand, groups 2 and 3 displayed similar left atrial size, ventricular function, and mitral regurgitation. Importantly, the same histologic alterations found in dogs with sustained AF and reversed by CI-994 were also present in atrial tissue from transplanted patients with chronic AF. This is the first evidence that, in sustained AF, class I HDAC inhibition can reduce the total time of fibrillation, atrial fibrosis, intra-atrial adipocytes, and immune cell infiltration without significant effects on cardiac function.
- Received April 23, 2016.
- Accepted June 22, 2016.
↵1 M.S., R.L., J.C.P., and C.V. contributed equally to this work.
This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [Grants R01 HL105734 to V.V.P. and R01 HL108213 to F.A.R.] and unrestricted funds from the Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University.
- Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics