Berberine, a major isoquinoline alkaloid found in medicinal herbs, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory effects; however, the underlying mechanisms responsible for its actions are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of berberine and the molecular mechanisms involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW 264.7 and THP-1 macrophages and its effects in LPS-induced septic shock in mice. In both macrophage cell types, berberine inhibited the LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) protein expression, but it had no effect on iNOS mRNA transcription. Suppression of LPS-induced iNOS protein expression by berberine occurred via a human antigen R (HuR)-mediated reduction of iNOS mRNA stability. Molecular data revealed that the suppression on the LPS-induced HuR binding to iNOS mRNA by berberine was accompanied by a reduction in nucleocytoplasmic HuR shuttling. Pretreatment with berberine reduced LPS-induced iNOS protein expression and the cytoplasmic translocation of HuR in liver tissues and increased the survival rate of mice with LPS-induced endotoxemia. These results show that the suppression of iNOS protein expression by berberine under LPS-induced inflammatory conditions is associated with a reduction in iNOS mRNA stability resulting from inhibition of the cytoplasmic translocation of HuR.
- Received November 24, 2015.
- Accepted May 5, 2015.
J.S.S. and H.E.C. contributed equally to this work.
This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Science, Information & Communication Technology, and future Planning [Grant NRF-2015R1A2A2A01003459].
- Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics