Aberrant ligand-independent G protein–coupled receptor constitutive activity has been implicated in the pathophysiology of a number of cancers. The adenosine A2B receptor (A2BAR) is dynamically upregulated under pathologic conditions associated with a hypoxic microenvironment, including solid tumors. This, in turn, may amplify ligand-independent A2BAR signal transduction. The contribution of A2BAR constitutive activity to disease progression is currently unknown yet of fundamental importance, as the preferred therapeutic modality for drugs designed to reduce A2BAR constitutive activity would be inverse agonism as opposed to neutral antagonism. The current study investigated A2BAR constitutive activity in a heterologous expression system and a native 22Rv1 human prostate cancer cell line exposed to hypoxic conditions (2% O2). The A2BAR inverse agonists, ZM241385 [4-(2-[7-amino-2-(2-furyl)[1,2,4]triazolo[2,3-a][1,3,5]triazin-5-ylamino]ethyl)phenol] or PSB-603 (8-(4-(4-(4-chlorophenyl)piperazide-1-sulfonyl)phenyl)-1-propylxanthine), mediated a concentration-dependent decrease in baseline cAMP levels in both cellular systems. Proliferation of multiple prostate cancer cell lines was also attenuated in the presence of PSB-603. Importantly, both the decrease in baseline cAMP accumulation and the reduction of proliferation were not influenced by the addition of adenosine deaminase, demonstrating that these effects are not dependent on stimulation of A2BARs by the endogenous agonist adenosine. Our study is the first to reveal that wild-type human A2BARs have high constitutive activity in both model and native cells. Furthermore, our findings demonstrate that this ligand-independent A2BAR constitutive activity is sufficient to promote prostate cancer cell proliferation in vitro. More broadly, A2BAR constitutive activity may have wider, currently unappreciated implications in pathologic conditions associated with a hypoxic microenvironment.
- Received October 13, 2015.
- Accepted January 19, 2016.
This work was supported by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) of Australia  and the Australian Research Council [DE130100117]. L.T.M. is an Australian Research Council (ARC) Discovery Early Career Researcher Award (DECRA) Postdoctoral Research Fellow [DE130100117], K.J.G. is an NHMRC CJ Martin Fellow , and A.C. is an NHMRC Principal Research Fellow . E.A.V. holds an Australian Postgraduate Award and an Australian Cancer Therapeutics scholarship.
- Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics