We have previously reported that mice lacking the efflux transporter Mrp3 had significant intestinal injury after toxic diclofenac (DCF) challenge, and proposed that diclofenac acyl glucuronide (DCF-AG), as a substrate of Mrp3, played a part in mediating injury. Since both humans and mice express the uptake transporter OATP2B1 in the intestines, OATP2B1 was characterized for DCF-AG uptake. In vitro assays using human embryonic kidney (HEK)-OATP2B1 cells demonstrated that DCF-AG was a substrate with a maximal velocity (Vmax) and Km of 17.6 ± 1.5 pmol/min per milligram and 14.3 ± 0.1 μM, respectively. Another key finding from our in vitro assays was that DCF-AG was more cytotoxic compared with DCF, and toxicity occurred within 1–3 hours of exposure. We also report that 1 mM DCF-AG caused a 6-fold increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) by 3 hours. Investigation of oxidative stress through inhibition of superoxide dismutase (SOD) revealed that DCF-AG had 100% inhibition of SOD at the highest tested dose of 1 mM. The SOD and ROS results strongly suggest DCF-AG induced oxidative stress in vitro. Lastly, DCF-AG was screened for pharmacologic activity against COX-1 and COX-2 and was found to have IC50 values of 0.620 ± 0.105 and 2.91 ± 0.36 μM, respectively, which represents a novel finding. Since cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition can lead to intestinal ulceration, it is plausible that DCF-AG can also contribute to enteropathy via COX inhibition. Taken in context, the work presented herein demonstrated the multifactorial pathways by which DCF-AG can act as a direct contributor to toxicity following DCF administration.
- Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics