Multiple studies have implicated the depletion of isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway intermediates in the induction of autophagy. However, the exact mechanism by which isoprenoid biosynthesis inhibitors induce autophagy has not been well established. We hypothesized that inhibition of farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FDPS) and geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGDPS) by bisphosphonates would induce autophagy by depleting cellular geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) and impairing protein geranylgeranylation. Herein, we show that an inhibitor of FDPS (zoledronate) and an inhibitor of GGDPS (digeranyl bisphosphonate, DGBP) induce autophagy in PC3 prostate cancer and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells as measured by accumulation of the autophagic marker LC3-II. Treatment of cells with lysosomal protease inhibitors [(2S,3S)-trans-epoxysuccinyl-l-leucylamido-3-methylbutane ethyl ester (E-64d) and pepstatin A] in combination with zoledronate or digeranyl bisphosphonate further enhances the formation of LC3-II, indicating that these compounds induce autophagic flux. It is noteworthy that the addition of exogenous GGPP prevented the accumulation of LC3-II and impairment of Rab6 (a GGTase II substrate) geranylgeranylation by isoprenoid pathway inhibitors (lovastatin, zoledronate, and DGBP). However, exogenous GGPP did not restore isoprenoid pathway inhibitor-induced impairment of Rap1a (a GGTase I substrate) geranylgeranylation. In addition, specific inhibitors of farnesyl transferase and geranylgeranyl transferase I are unable to induce autophagy in our system. Furthermore, the addition of bafilomycin A1 (an inhibitor of autophagy processing) enhanced the antiproliferative effects of digeranyl bisphosphonate. These results are the first to demonstrate that bisphosphonates induce autophagy. Our study suggests that induction of autophagy in PC3 cells with these agents is probably dependent upon impairment of geranylgeranylation of GGTase II substrates.
The isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway (Fig. 1) is responsible for the production of a wide array of compounds with diverse biological functions. Small molecule inhibitors of this pathway have yielded clinical success. The statins (e.g., lovastatin) are commonly prescribed for hypercholesterolemia and inhibit 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (Endo et al., 1976), which is the rate-limiting step of cholesterol biosynthesis (Siperstein and Fagan, 1966). The nitrogenous bisphosphonates (e.g., zoledronate) target farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FDPS) (van Beek et al., 1999) and are used for bone-related disorders such as osteoporosis.
Although statins and nitrogenous bisphosphonates are used for distinct clinical disorders, they have common effects within cells, including depletion of pathway intermediates farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) and geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP). FPP is at the major branch point of the pathway, used in the synthesis of cholesterol or GGPP as well as other molecules. Farnesyl and geranylgeranyl moieties can be post-translationally adducted onto select proteins in processes termed farnesylation and geranylgeranylation (collectively referred to as prenylation), respectively (Zhang and Casey, 1996). Farnesylation is catalyzed by farnesyltransferase (FTase), whereas geranylgeranylation can be catalyzed by either geranylgeranyl transferase (GGTase) I or GGTase II (also referred to as Rab GGTase), depending upon the nature of the acceptor protein. For proteins that are farnesylated or geranylgeranylated, such as small GTPases of the Ras and Rho family, prenylation is essential for proper localization and function (Swanson and Hohl, 2006).
Macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy) is a cellular process that degrades damaged cytoplasmic organelles as well as long-lived, misfolded, or aggregated proteins (Glick et al., 2010). During autophagy, a target substrate is first encapsulated in a double membrane vesicle known as an autophagosome. Autophagosomes can then fuse with lysosomes to form autolysosomes where the contents are degraded. This process ultimately allows for the recycling of amino acids and other degraded products and is up-regulated in response to cellular stresses such as starvation.
Inhibitors of the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway have been linked to autophagy. Studies have shown that statins are capable of inducing autophagy in A204 human rhabdomyosarcoma cells (Araki and Motojima, 2008). More recently, statins have been shown to induce autophagy in PC3 prostate cancer cells, and the induction of autophagy was prevented by the addition of the geranylgeraniol, the alcohol form of GGPP (Parikh et al., 2010). It remains uncertain whether this prevention is due to restoration of isoprenoid levels or protein prenylation. In addition, a novel GGTase I/II inhibitor, when combined with a statin, induced autophagy in the STS-26T malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor cell line (Sane et al., 2010), suggesting that the impairment of prenylation can induce autophagy. However, this drug combination does not allow for the distinction of whether the impairment of GGTase I or GGTase II substrate geranylgeranylation is responsible for autophagic induction. Further complicating the inter-relationship of prenylation and autophagy, farnesyltransferase inhibitors have been shown to induce autophagy in Panc-1 pancreatic cancer and U2OS osteosarcoma cells (Pan et al., 2008). In addition, an inhibitor of isoprenylcysteine carboxyl methyltransferase, an enzyme required in later steps of prenylation processing, induced autophagy in PC3 and HepG2 cells (Wang et al., 2008, 2010). A yeast deletion collection was treated with nitrogenous bisphosphonates, which identified ATG4, ATG11, ATG14, and ATG16 (all autophagy-related genes) hemizygous strains as having increased sensitivity to nitrogenous bisphosphonates (Bivi et al., 2009).
Our collaborators have synthesized digeranyl bisphosphonate (DGBP), and we have shown it to specifically inhibit geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGDPS) (Shull et al., 2006; Wiemer et al., 2007). This compound specifically impairs protein geranylgeranylation via depletion of GGPP in various cell types. Furthermore, GGPP depletion results in the inhibition of cancer cell migration (Dudakovic et al., 2010) and induction of apoptosis (Dudakovic et al., 2008). We hypothesize and provide evidence herein to support that depletion of GGPP by bisphosphonate inhibitors of FDPS (i.e., zoledronate) or GGDPS (i.e., DGBP) results in the induction of autophagy.
Materials and Methods
PC3, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, and HepG2 cells were obtained from American Type Culture Collection (Manassas, VA). Cells were maintained in Ham's F-12 (PC3), minimal essential medium (MDA-MB-231 and HepG2), and Leibovitz's L-15 (MDA-MB-468) media supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum at 5% CO2 at 37°C.
Lovastatin, mevalonate, FPP, GGPP, pepstatin A, (2S,3S)-trans-epoxysuccinyl-l-leucylamido-3-methylbutane ethyl ester (E-64d), bafilomycin A1, and GGTI-2133 were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO). Zoledronate was obtained from Novartis (East Hanover, NJ). MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] and N-[4-[2(R)-amino-3-mercaptopropyl]amino-2-phenylbenzoyl]methionine methyl ester (FTI-277) were purchased from Calbiochem (San Diego, CA). Anti-pan-Ras was obtained from InterBiotechnology (Tokyo, Japan). Rap1a and α-tubulin antibodies were obtained from Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc. (Santa Cruz, CA). LC3-II antibody (APG8B) was obtained from Abgent (San Diego, CA). Horseradish peroxidase-conjugated anti-mouse and anti-rabbit were from GE Healthcare (Chalfont St. Giles, Buckinghamshire, UK), whereas anti-goat was from Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc. The enhanced chemiluminescence detection kit was obtained from GE Healthcare.
Preparation of Cell Lysates.
Cells were plated in T25 flasks and allowed to reach 50% confluence. Old media were then replaced with fresh media, and relevant compounds were added. All compounds were added simultaneously in experiments that required multiple agents in the same T25 flask. At the end of each experiment (24 or 48 h), media were removed, and cells were washed twice in phosphate-buffered saline. Cells were collected by the trypsin method.
Cells were lysed in radioimmunoprecipitation buffer (150 mM NaCl, 50 mM Tris, pH 7.4, 1% sodium deoxycholate, 0.1% SDS, and 1% Triton X-100) supplemented with protease inhibitor cocktail (once; Sigma-Aldrich), sodium vanadate (1 mM), sodium fluoride (25 mM), and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (1 mM). Lysates were transferred to a 1.5-ml tube, vortexed several times over 30 min, and passed through a 27-gauge needle. Lysates were then centrifuged, and the supernatant was transferred to a fresh 1.5-ml tube. All steps were performed at 4°C.
Triton X-114 Separation.
Based on the method of Bordier (1981) for separation of prenylated and unprenylated Rab6, cells were lysed in ice-cold Triton X-114 lysis buffer (20 mM Tris pH 7.5, 150 mM NaCl, and 1% Triton X-114). Cell lysate was passed through a 27-gauge needle and cleared by centrifugation at 12,000g for 15 min at 4°C, after which the supernatant was transferred to a new tube and incubated at 37°C for 10 min and then spun down at room temperature at 12,000g for 2 min. The aqueous (upper) phase was transferred to a new tube, and the lower detergent phase was diluted into buffer without Triton X-114 before electrophoresis.
Western Blot Analysis.
Protein concentrations were determined by the bicinchoninic acid method. Proteins were resolved on 12 or 15% gels and transferred to polyvinylidene difluoride membranes by electrophoresis. After blocking in 5% nonfat dry milk for 45 min, primary and secondary antibodies were added sequentially for 1 h at 37°C, and proteins were visualized using an enhanced chemiluminescence detection kit.
Cells (8 × 104 cells/well) were allowed to adhere in 24-well plates overnight. Cells were treated with relevant compounds and incubated 45 h. MTT was added, and cells were incubated further. Three hours later, MTT stop solution (HCl, Triton X-100, and isopropyl alcohol) was added to all of the wells and then incubated with gentle agitation overnight at 37°C. Absorbance was measured at 540 nm with a reference wavelength at 650 nm.
DNA Synthesis Assay.
Cells (2500 in 200 μl of media) were plated in 96-well plates and allowed to adhere overnight. Cells were then treated with compounds as indicated in the figure legends. After 44 h, 20 μl of [3H]thymidine (0.1385 TBq/mmol; 3.75 Ci/mmol in media) was added to each well. At 48 h, cells were filtered through glass microfiber paper using a Brandel (Gaithersburg, MD) cell harvester. [3H]Thymidine incorporated into cellular DNA was quantified by scintillation counting.
The unpaired two-tailed Student's t test was used to calculate statistical significance. P < 0.01 was set as the level of significance.
Isoprenoid Biosynthetic Pathway Inhibitors Interfere with Protein Prenylation in a Concentration-Dependent Manner in PC3 Cells.
To determine the potency with which isoprenoid pathway inhibitors interfere with protein prenylation, PC3 cells were with several concentrations of lovastatin, zoledronate, and DGBP for 24 h (Fig. 2A). The Ras antibody that was used in these experiments recognizes the modified (farnesylated) and the unmodified (nonfarnesylated) form of the protein. The unmodified form of Ras is the slower migrating, upper band on the Western blot Ras panel. In contrast, the antibody used to detect Rap1a only detects the unmodified form of this protein, which is normally geranylgeranylated by GGTase I. Therefore, the appearance of a band on the Western blot Rap1a panel indicates impairment of its geranylgeranylation. Detection of α-tubulin, a housekeeping gene, was used as a loading control for all Western blotting experiments. Lovastatin and zoledronate interfere with farnesylation and geranylgeranylation of proteins as indicated by the appearance of the unmodified forms of Ras and Rap1a. DGBP interferes with protein geranylgeranylation without disturbing protein farnesylation. Maximal impairment of Rap1a geranylgeranylation occurs at 0.5 to 1 μM lovastatin, 50 to 100 μM zoledronate, and 10 to 25 μM DGBP. It is noteworthy that these concentrations of lovastatin and zoledronate did not impair protein farnesylation maximally. The concentration that maximally impairs protein geranylgeranylation for each inhibitor (1 μM lovastatin, 100 μM zoledronate, and 25 μM DGBP) was used for subsequent experiments.
Isoprenoid Biosynthetic Pathway Inhibitors Reduce MTT Activity and DNA Synthesis Concentration-Dependently in PC3 Cells.
To assess viability of cells in the presence of isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway inhibitors, MTT assay was performed at 48 h (Fig. 2B). In addition, cell proliferation was assessed by [3H]thymidine incorporation assay (Fig. 2C). Concentration-dependent reduction in MTT activity and inhibition of DNA synthesis ([3H]thymidine incorporation assay) were observed with all three inhibitors. Lovastatin was most potent, whereas zoledronate was least potent at decreasing MTT activity and DNA synthesis.
Bisphosphonates Induce LC3-II Accumulation in PC3 Cells.
To establish whether bisphosphonates induce LC3-II accumulation, PC3 cells were treated with lovastatin, zoledronate, and DGBP for 24 and 48 h (Fig. 3A). As described previously, statins have been shown to induce autophagy in PC3 cells (Parikh et al., 2010). Thus, lovastatin is used as a positive control for induction of autophagy. To assess LC3-II protein levels, an antibody was used that specifically detects the LC3-II form of LC3 used in our studies. The appearance of the LC3-II band on the Western blot is an established form of detection of autophagy (Mizushima and Yoshimori, 2007; Glick et al., 2010). LC3-II accumulation was not apparent at 24 h with the use of isoprenoid pathway inhibitors. In contrast, LC3-II accumulation was observed at 48 h with the use of the positive control (lovastatin) and bisphosphonates (zoledronate and DGBP). The appearance of LC3-II was detectable at 10 μM DGBP and 50 μM zoledronate, and this effect was concentration-responsive with respect to both drugs. Protein prenylation status was also assessed as described previously (Fig. 3A). In addition, we used Rab6 to evaluate the status of proteins geranylgeranylated by GGTase II (Fig. 3B). To assess the prenylation status of Rab6, cells were lysed in Triton X-114, which can undergo a phase separation above 20°C, allowing for separation of amphiphilic (detergent phase) from hydrophilic (aqueous phase) proteins (Bordier, 1981). The detergent-rich fraction retains prenylated proteins, whereas unprenylated proteins are found in the aqueous phase (Ren et al., 1997); thus, impairment of Rab6 geranylgeranylation was noted by the appearance of a band in the aqueous fraction of the Western blots for Rab6. At 24 and 48 h, the inhibition of Rab6 processing was noted with all isoprenoid pathway inhibitors.
Bisphosphonate-Induced LC3-II Accumulation Is Dependent on GGPP Depletion in PC3 Cells.
To determine whether the effects of bisphosphonates on LC3-II accumulation are dependent on the depletion of specific molecules within the isoprenoid pathway, inhibitors were coadministered with exogenous isoprenoid pathway intermediates for 48 h (Fig. 3C). The addition of mevalonate and GGPP, but not FPP, completely prevents the effects of lovastatin on the induction of autophagy as measured by LC3-II levels. FPP addition alone does not prevent the effects of lovastatin because of the lack of isopentenyl diphosphate to generate GGPP from FPP (Fig. 1). Likewise, GGPP, but not FPP, completely prevents LC3-II accumulation by zoledronate. GGPP also entirely prevents the effects of DGBP on LC3-II accumulation. It is noteworthy that isoprenoid pathway inhibitor-induced impairment of Rap1a (a GGTase I substrate) geranylgeranylation was not prevented by GGPP addition under the conditions tested, whereas isoprenoid pathway inhibitor-induced impairment of Rab6 (a GGTase II substrate) geranylgeranylation was completely prevented by GGPP addition (Fig. 3D).
Bisphosphonates Induce Autophagic Flux in PC3 Cells.
The accumulation of LC3-II can be caused by induction of autophagy as well as by inhibition of autophagosomal processing (Mizushima and Yoshimori, 2007). To confirm that GGPP depletion by bisphosphonates genuinely induces autophagy, experiments were performed to evaluate autophagic flux (Fig. 4). Lysosomal protease inhibitors (pepstatin A and E-64d) were used to prevent the degradation of LC3-II, allowing for analysis of autophagic flux. As shown previously, lovastatin, zoledronate, and DGBP increase accumulation of LC3-II. Dual administration of protease inhibitors with each of the isoprenoid pathway inhibitors further enhances the accumulation of LC3-II, suggesting that bisphosphonates (zoledronate and DGBP) induce autophagy as opposed to interfering with autophagosomal processing. It is noteworthy that the lysosome inhibitors also increase LC3-II formation compared with control by blocking basal autophagosomal degradation.
Bisphosphonates Induce LC3-II Accumulation in MDA-MB-231 but Not in MDA-MB-468 and HepG2 Cells.
Experiments were performed with the breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 and the hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line to determine whether autophagic effects in PC3 cells were cell line-specific (Fig. 5). Similar to PC3 cells, LC3-II accumulation is induced by each of the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway inhibitors in MDA-MB-231 cells. In contrast, none of the inhibitors used resulted in detectable LC3-II formation in MDA-MB-468 or HepG2 cells. It is noteworthy that higher concentrations of zoledronate and DGBP were also unable to induce LC3-II accumulation in these two cell lines (data not shown).
Inhibition of Either FTase or GGTase I Does Not Induce LC3-II Accumulation in PC3 Cells.
To determine whether direct impairment of protein farnesylation by FTase or protein geranylgeranylation by GGTase I induces LC3-II accumulation, inhibitors of these two enzymes were used (Fig. 6). As in previous experiments, lovastatin (positive control) induced the accumulation of LC3-II. At 48 h, GGTI-2133 impaired geranylgeranylation of Rap1a (GGTase I substrate) but not farnesylation of Ras (FTase substrate). In contrast, an inhibitor of FTase, FTI-277, interfered with farnesylation but not with geranylgeranylation. At longer exposure times, 10 μM FTI-277 resulted in some detectable impairment of Rap1a geranylgeranylation (data not shown), suggesting some promiscuous activity of this compound. Treatment of cells with GGTI-2133 and FTI-277 did not result in the accumulation of LC3-II, despite the effective inhibition of their respective target enzymes.
Inhibition of Autophagy Enhances DGBP-Induced Reduction in MTT Activity and DNA Synthesis in PC3 Cells.
To assess the role of autophagy inhibition with zoledronate and DGBP, combinational studies were performed with bafilomycin A1 using MTT assay and [3H]thymidine incorporation at 48 h (Fig. 7). Bafilomycin A1 is an inhibitor of fusion between autophagosomes and lysosomes. The combination of zoledronate and bafilomycin A1 did not significantly decrease MTT activity (Fig. 7A) or DNA synthesis (Fig. 7B) compared with single agents. In contrast, the combination of DGBP and bafilomycin A1 significantly decreased MTT activity (Fig. 7A) and DNA synthesis (Fig. 7B) compared with each individual agent.
It is well established that statins and nitrogenous bisphosphonates deplete isoprenoid pathway intermediates (Wiemer et al., 2009). Many of the cellular effects of these agents have been attributed to the depletion of GGPP (Xia et al., 2001; Coxon et al., 2004). Our prior work further explored cellular consequences of GGPP depletion through the utilization of a novel bisphosphonate that directly inhibits GGDPS (Dudakovic et al., 2008, 2010). Other recent work has suggested that statins can induce autophagy (Parikh et al., 2010). In this study, we explore the possibility that more specific depletion of GGPP by bisphosphonates would induce autophagy in PC3 prostate cancer cells.
We have shown for the first time that bisphosphonate inhibitors of FDPS (i.e., zoledronate) and GGDPS (i.e., DGBP) result in the induction of autophagy as measured by LC3-II formation. The addition of exogenous GGPP completely prevents induction of LC3-II formation by bisphosphonates, suggesting that depletion of GGPP is the primary mechanism by which zoledronate and DGBP induce autophagy. Furthermore, GGPP did not prevent isoprenoid pathway inhibitor impairment of Rap1a (a GGTase I substrate) geranylgeranylation but did prevent impairment of Rab6 (a GGTase II substrate) geranylgeranylation. This suggests that impairment of GGTase II substrates may be responsible for the increase in LC3-II resulting from GGPP depletion.
The accumulation of LC3-II can result from induction of autophagy or impaired basal autophagic processing (Mizushima and Yoshimori, 2007). The addition of lysosomal inhibitors was used to establish whether accumulation of LC3-II was a result of autophagy induction or decreased autophagic flux by bisphosphonate drugs. Similar to the previously reported results with statins (Parikh et al., 2010), our results suggest that LC3-II accumulation was the result of induction of autophagy because the lysosomal inhibitors further increased LC3-II protein levels.
To determine whether induction of autophagy by bisphosphonates was not specific to the PC3 prostate cancer cell line, we evaluated three additional cancer cell lines. As is the case with PC3 cells, lovastatin as well as bisphosphonates (zoledronate and DGBP) induce autophagy in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells as measured by LC3-II accumulation. However, in HepG2 and MDA-MB-468 cells, LC3-II accumulation was not observed in the presence of lovastatin or bisphosphonates (zoledronate and DGBP). It has been reported previously (Araki and Motojima, 2008) that statins do not induce autophagy in HepG2 cells. These results are not due to a lack of inducible autophagy, as both HepG2 and MDA-MB-468 have been reported to be capable of autophagic induction (Cheng et al., 2010; Wang et al., 2010).
We sought to determine whether direct impairment of protein geranylgeranylation would induce autophagy in PC3 cells. As demonstrated by our studies, GGTI-2133 (GGTase I inhibitor) is not able to induce LC3-II accumulation despite effective impairment of target protein geranylgeranylation. This suggests that bisphosphonate-induced autophagy is attributed to the depletion of GGPP but not to the impairment of geranylgeranylation of proteins by GGTase I. It is possible that the impairment of geranylgeranylation of GGTase II substrates facilitates the activation of autophagy. Our data with Rab6 and GGPP correlate with this hypothesis. However, we cannot rule out the potential that disruption of other processes dependent upon GGPP is responsible. Other studies have shown a novel GGTI when combined with a statin induced autophagy in STS-26T malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor cells (Sane et al., 2010). These other results may be a consequence of this novel GGTI inhibiting both GGTase I and II. A recent study using the STS-26T human malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor cell line found that the combination of an FTI and lovastatin (which also resulted in inhibition of Rab geranylgeranylation) caused the formation of LC-II but did not increase autophagic flux, which the authors suggest resulted in an abortive autophagic program and nonapoptotic cell death (Wojtkowiak et al., 2011). We did not detect apoptosis as measured by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage in PC3 cells (data not shown); however, we did not directly measure cell death to determine whether nonapoptotic cell death occurred. Specific impairment of geranylgeranylation of GGTase II substrates may be a mechanism by which GGPP depletion causes LC3-II accumulation. However, the lack of commercially available reagents does not allow for direct examination of this hypothesis at this time. Previous studies have shown that farnesyltransferase inhibitors can induce autophagy (Pan et al., 2008). Our results did not show accumulation of LC3-II because of FTI-277 treatment in PC3 cells. Pan et al. (2009) speculate that the inhibition of Rheb farnesylation by FTIs is responsible for autophagy induction. The difference between our data and their data is probably attributable to differences in cell lines, as our own data show results that are dependent upon cell line usage. Furthermore, we speculate that PC3 cells may be dysfunctional in the Rheb-mammalian target of rapamycin arm of the autophagic pathway because, in addition to a lack of FTI-induced autophagy, we also did not detect LC3-II accumulation upon treatment with rapamycin (data not shown). Rapamycin is a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor that can induce autophagy.
Nitrogenous bisphosphonates are currently used for treatment of bone-related metastatic cancers (Licata, 2005). The inhibition of autophagy is under intense evaluation with respect to anti-cancer applications (Kondo et al., 2005). Therefore, zoledronate and DGBP were combined with bafilomycin A1, an inhibitor of autophagic function, to assess whether inhibition of autophagy would enhance the anti-proliferative effects of bisphosphonates. The addition of bafilomycin A1 with DGBP significantly decreased MTT activity and inhibited DNA synthesis greater than single agents alone. At the concentrations tested, bafilomycin A1 did not significantly decrease MTT activity or DNA synthesis when combined with zoledronate. Although the reason for this difference is unclear, it is possible that DGBP-specific effects, such as FPP accumulation, contribute to this difference. This suggests that the combination of inhibitors of autophagy with GGDPS inhibitors should be further explored as a possible therapeutic strategy.
Participated in research design: Wasko, Dudakovic, and Hohl.
Conducted experiments: Wasko and Dudakovic.
Contributed new reagents or analytic tools: Hohl.
Performed data analysis: Wasko, Dudakovic, and Hohl.
Wrote or contributed to the writing of the manuscript: Wasko, Dudakovic, and Hohl.
Other: Hohl acquired funding for this research.
This work was supported by the Roy J. Carver Charitable Trust as a Research Program of Excellence; and the Roland W. Holden Family Program for Experimental Cancer Therapeutics.
Article, publication date, and citation information can be found at http://jpet.aspetjournals.org.
- farnesyl diphosphate synthase
- farnesyl diphosphate
- geranylgeranyl diphosphate
- geranylgeranyl transferase
- digeranyl bisphosphonate
- geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase
- 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide
- FTI-277 (N-[4-[2(R)-amino-3-mercaptopropyl]amino-2-phenylbenzoyl]methionine methyl ester)
- (2S,3S)-trans-epoxysuccinyl-l-leucylamido-3-methylbutane ethyl ester.
- Received September 24, 2010.
- Accepted February 17, 2011.
- Copyright © 2011 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics