Phencyclidine (PCP) inhibits dopamine (DA) uptake and acts as a noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist by binding to PCP receptors. The PCP analog N-[1-(2-benzo(b)thiophenyl) cyclohexyl]piperidine (BTCP, GK13) is a potent DA uptake inhibitor, but has low affinity for PCP receptors. The behavioral effects of BTCP were compared with those of PCP, ketamine, MK-801 and cocaine. In mice, BTCP, like cocaine, produced locomotion, sniffing and gnawing; haloperidol blocked these effects. PCP, ketamine and MK-801 produced locomotion, sniffing, swaying and falling. PCP, ketamine and MK-801 produced generalization in rats discriminating either cocaine, PCP or MK-801 from saline. Like cocaine, BTCP produced generalization in cocaine-discriminating rats only; haloperidol partially antagonized this effect. In pigeons, PCP-like catalepsy was produced by ketamine and MK-801, but not by BTCP. N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced convulsions in mice were antagonized by PCP, ketamine and MK-801, but not by BTCP or cocaine. Thus, BTCP shared only cocaine-like behavioral effects with PCP, ketamine and MK-801. A DA antagonist reduced the effects of BTCP. Therefore, the cocaine-like behavioral effects of BTCP may be mediated primarily by DA uptake mechanisms. However, PCP receptors, but not DA uptake mechanisms, may mediate the cocaine-like behavioral effects of PCP, ketamine and MK-801, because their order of potency in producing these effects (MK-801 greater than PCP greater than ketamine) is consistent with their potency order at PCP receptors, but not at DA uptake sites.