In an attempt to induce denervation-like supersensitivity in the smooth muscle of the vas deferens without depriving the tissue of its innervation, a small amount of colchicine was locally applied to the hypogastric plexus of the rat. Colchicine produced supersensitivity and a partial depletion of the tissue norepinephrine. These effects were dose-dependent. The supersensitivity produced by colchicine was qualitatively and quantitatively similar to that induced by denervation. Following application of 20 micrograms of colchicine, the supersensitivity was fully developed by the 4th day. The supersensitivity began to decline by the 6th day but was measurable even after 16 days. Functional neuromuscular transmission was maintained even on the 4th day after colchicine application, although it was significantly less than the control. The time course of the development of supersensitivity was dependent on the length of the adrenergic nerve between the colchicine-applied site and the effector cells. The results indicate that supersensitivity is independent of an irreversible degeneration of the adrenergic nerves. The possible mechanisms of action of colchicine are discussed in relation to the known effects of colchicine on axoplasmic transport.